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Electronic version of  “ARMENIA: The Survival of a Nation”, revised second edition © 1990 Christopher J. Walker


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Biographical Notes



These entries are intended as a guide to the lives of some of the important Armenian figures of the past 150 years or so, many of whose names appear in the foregoing pages; they do not add up to a comprehensive 'Who's Who' of the modern period of Armenian history. Much the greater part of the information contained in them has been given to me by Zaven Messerlian of Beirut, to whom I repeat my thanks. However, the choice of entries has been mine. With some exceptions, my criterion for including a biography has been that the individual had some direct contact with the land of Armenia, or in shaping her destiny. A long entry does not necessarily mean that the person was correspondingly important.


ABOVIAN KHACHATUR (Kanaker ?1809 – ? Yerevan 1848) Educated at the Nersesian Academy, Tiflis. Appointed secretary to the Catholicos, Echmiadzin. Acted as guide for the ascent of Ararat by the German scientist F. Parrot in 1829; through Parrot's efforts he obtained a scholarship to Dorpat university (modern Tartu, Estonia), 1830–6. Received hostile reception from clergy and traditionalists on his return home. To Tiflis as a teacher in a state school in 1837. Encountered further hostility. Wrote novel Verk Hayastani ('Wounds of Armenia') based on fact, 1840–1; first published Tiflis, 1858. Translated from Homer, Schiller, Goethe, Rousseau and others. Appointed principal of village school in Yerevan in 1843. Disappeared April 1848.


AGHASI (Karapet Tursargisian) (Zeitun 1871–1937) Leading Hunchak; most significant leader of the battle against the Turkish forces in October–November 1895. Wrote a history of Zeitun from its origins to 1895. (French translation by Arshak Chobanian, Paris, 1897)


AGHBALIAN, NIKOL (Tiflis 1875 – Beirut 1947) Educated Nersesian Academy and Gevorgian Seminary. Became a teacher; contributed to Murdj ('Hammer'). Continued education at universities of Moscow, Paris and Lausanne. Leading Dashnak party member. Returned to Transcaucasia in 1905. Headmaster of Armenian school in Tehran 1909–12. Co-editor with Arshak Djamalian of Horizon (Tiflis), 1913. Participated in 8th Dashnak party congress, Erzerum, 1914. Member of Armenian National Council 1914–15; also one of the organisers of the Armenian volunteer forces. Member of Armenian Parliament from 1918; minister of education in Khatisian's Cabinet. Established a centre of higher studies at Alexandropol, 31 January 1920.


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Arrested by the Bolsheviks; released after February uprising. Fled the return of the Bolsheviks into Persian Azerbaijan. Director of an Armenian school in Alexandria 1923–8. In 1928 founded in Beirut Hamazkayin cultural/educational organisation, and, with Levon Shant, the Djemaran (academy). Taught grabar and history of Armenian literature there until his death.


AHARONIAN, AVETIS (nr Igdir 1866 – Marseilles 1948) Educated at Gevorgian seminary, Echmiadzin. Taught 1886–96, mainly in Igdir. Became active member of Dashnak party. Higher education in Lausanne and Paris, 1898–1901. Returned to Transcaucasia; pursued journalistic and literary labours. Appointed in 1906 to the board of Droshak ('Flag'), official journal of Dashnaktsutiun. Headmaster of Nersesian Academy, Tiflis, 1907–9. Arrested and jailed successively in Metekh, Baku, Rostov and Novo Cherkask. Developed lung condition. Bribed his way out of jail in 1911; escaped to Europe via Constantinople. Settled in Switzerland, maintaining links with Caucasian press. Returned to Transcaucasia 1916. One of the organisers of the Armenian National Congress (September 1917), which elected the National Council. President (speaker) of the Parliament of the Republic of Armenia. Delegated to confer with Ittihadist leaders in Constantinople, June 1918. Appointed permanent delegate at the Paris peace conference, 1919. Signed the treaty of Sèvres on behalf of the Republic of Armenia, August 1920. Stayed on during negotiations leading to treaty of Lausanne (July 1923), at which he protested. Settled in Marseilles. Paralysed by a stroke while giving a speech in February 1934; an invalid for the rest of his life.


AKNUNI, E. (Khachatur Malumian) (Meghri, Zangezur c. 1865 – Ayash 1915) Dashnak party activist. Contributed to Mshak ('Labourer', Tiflis). Spent some time in St Petersburg. Active in Paris in 1904 plotting the overthrow of Sultan Abdul Hamid with the Young Turks. After Armeno–Tatar clashes of 1905 wrote strongly anti-Russian work, translated into French as Les plaies du Caucase. Played important role in 1907 in smoothing way to Young Turk revolution; to Constantinople in 1908, where he gave enthusiastic speeches in support of the revolution. Toured Armenian colonies in Europe and America in 1912. Arrested on 24 April 1915 and murdered during genocide.


ALISHAN, Father GHEVOND (Constantinople 1820 – Venice 1901) Baptismal name Keropé. Sent to study at Mkhitarist monastery, San Lazzaro, Venice, in 1832. Ordained Armenian Catholic priest in 1840. To England in 1852; also visited other Western European states. Teacher and later headmaster of the Murad Rapayelian school, Venice. Students included Arpiar Arpiarian. His nationalistic poetry and prose were an inspiration to Kamar Katiba, Dserents, Raffi, Khrimian Hairik, Mikayel Nalbandian and Grigor Ardsruni. Publications include: Houshikk Haireniats Hayots (1869), Sisouan (1885), Hayapatum (1901).


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ANDRANIK (Ozanian), General (Shabin Karahisar 1865 – Fresno 1927) Trained as a carpenter. Began revolutionary activity in Sivas province in 1888. Joined the Dashnak party in 1892. Defended Armenian villages in Moush-Sasun district in 1895–6. To Transcaucasia in 1897, to the party headquarters in Tiflis. Returned to Turkish Armenia well armed and with extensive powers. Leader of the guerrilla forces in Sasun from 1899, with 38 villages under his command. After the murder of Serop in 1900, Andranik assassinated his killer, Bshara Khalil agha; became leader of Armenians of entire Bitlis and Moush district. Besieged at Arakelots monastery (near Moush) in November 1901, he broke out with his men after donning the uniforms of Turkish officers. Confronted by large Turkish force in spring 1904, he and his men – the elite of the Armenian guerrillas – effected a retreat to Van via Aghtamar. Left Turkish Armenia for Persia. To Transcaucasia; then Vienna. Resigned from the Dashnak party in 1907. Spent some time in Geneva and Egypt; then to Sofia. Soon identified himself with the Macedonian struggle; led a troop of 230 Armenian volunteers in the First Balkan war, 1912. To Transcaucasia on outbreak of first world war; commanded a volunteer troop of 1,000 men, active on the North Persian front, contributing to the Russian victory at Diliman (Shahpur, April 1915). His forces joined with the Armenian legion in expelling the Turks from south of Lake Van; but forced to retreat by a Turkish counter-offensive (July 1915). His unit dissolved by the authorities in early 1916. Commander of the Western Armenian division, in December 1917, whose three brigades constituted part of the Armenian Corps (established January 1918). Forced to evacuate Erzerum, March 1918. Resigned his command and left for Tiflis in same month. Formed new Western Armenian brigade; did not participate in the battle of Sardarabad. Angry with the leaders of the Republic of Armenia for signing the treaty of Batum; recognised the government of Soviet Russia, and declared Nakhichevan to be part of it (July 1918), having gone to Zangezur via Nakhichevan. About to March on Shushi (Karabagh) in December 1918, when a message from the British commander halted him, thereby causing Karabagh to remain outside Armenia to this day. To Echmiadzin via Daralagiaz, March 1919; forced by British pressure to disband his brigade. Left Transcaucasia in April 1919; to Paris and London, trying to persuade Allies to occupy Turkish Armenia. To the USA fund-raising for the Armenian army. To Fresno, California, where he died in 1927; his body shipped abroad for burial in Armenia; refused entry by Communist authorities, so laid to rest in Père Lachaise cemetery, Paris. In 1970 his grave visited by Marshal I. Kh. Baghramian. A bust of him has been erected in Soviet Armenia.


ARAKELIAN, HAMBARDZUM (Shushi 1855 – Yerevan 1918) Member of the committee convened 1912 in Tiflis to discuss Turkish Armenian matters. Contributor to Mshak ('Labourer'); editor 1913–18. Leader of the Zhoghovrdakan (Populist) party after its formation in 1917 as eastern equivalent of the Ramkavars. Advocated strongly pro-Russian stance; held


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that Transcaucasia should always maintain links with Russia. Opposed independence of Armenia; in spring 1918 used to speak at 7–8 meetings per day putting forward his views. Assassinated by Dashnaks during the course of one such speech in May 1918.


ARAM Manukian (Sergei Hovhanessian) (Zeiva, nr Ghapan, Zangezur 1879 – Yerevan 1919) Educated Shushi and Yerevan. Leading Dashnaktsakan. To Baku in 1901 to organise the Armenian workers. In 1903 to Yelizavetpol (Gandja; Gandzak) to set up Armenian self-defence. Travelled on to Kars. To Van in 1904. Taught in Ordu after 1908 Ottoman constitution. Returned to Van in late 1912. In 1915, along with Armenak Yekarian, organised the Van self-defence. Governor of Vaspurakan during Russian occupation. To Tiflis after Russian withdrawal. Sent by the National Council to Yerevan in 1918. 'Dictator of Ararat region' May–July 1918; with others he organised the defences against the invading Turks. Held by Dashnaks to be the founder of the Republic of Armenia. Minister of the interior and of supplies in the government of Kachaznuni. Died 19 January 1919, of typhus.


ARAPO (c. 1863–93) Fedayi active in Bitlis–Sasun region before Sasun revolt. Sentenced to 15 years' hard labour; escaped from Bitlis jail. Organised villagers against Kurdish aghas and Ottoman tax-collectors. Killed in a skirmish in valley of Kyali-sor.


ARGHUTIANTS, HOVSEP Archbishop (Russian: Iosif Arguninskii) (Sanahin 1743–1801) Ordained a celibate priest; initially a brother at Echmiadzin. In 1773 appointed primate of the Armenians of Astrakhan. A friend of Prince Potemkin. In 1779 secured permission from Catherine the Great for the establishment of Nor Nakhichevan (nr Rostov-on-Don) as a settlement for Armenians from the Crimea. In 1780 discussed with Potemkin, Gen. Suvarov and H. Lazarian (of Moscow) the possibility of liberating Armenia; proposed that a future Armenia should be a vassal to Russia paying tribute and participating in Russian wars. Opened a school in Nor Nakhichevan in 1790. Contributed to Azdarar of Madras.


ARMEN GARO (Garegin Pasdermadjian) (Erzerum 1873 – Geneva 1924) Educated Sanasarian College, Erzerum, and Nancy (France). Joined Dashnak party 1895. Participated in seizure of Ottoman Bank, Constantinople, 1896. Returned to Europe to pursue scientific training. To Transcaucasia; in command of the Tiflis sector in combating the 1903–5 tsarist measures and Tatar attacks. Returned to Erzerum after Ottoman constitution of 1908; elected a deputy in the Ottoman Parliament. Quitted Ottoman empire on outbreak of war; helped establish Russian–Armenian volunteer units. Became the Republic of Armenia's unofficial ambassador in Washington. A member of the revised delegation at the Paris peace conference April 1919. Took part in organising assassinations of Turkish leaders in 1921–2.


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ARPIARIAN, ARPIAR (Samsun 1852 – Cairo 1908) Educated Murad-Rapayelian school, Venice. Founded Arevelk ('East') newspaper in 1884, then Hairenik (both in Constantinople). Played major role in spreading liberal ideas in the vernacular. Also edited Masis, and contributed to Mshak. Joined Hunchak party. Arrested in Constantinople 1890 for alleged seditious activities. Left Constantinople for London 1896, where he edited Mart ('Battle') monthly 1897–1901. Became leader of the non-Marxist Verakazmial Hunchaks, along with Mihran Damadian, Mkho Shahen and others. Left London for Venice in 1901. To Cairo in 1905, where he edited Shirak and contributed to Lousaper. Assassinated in Cairo in 1908 by Hunchaks.


ARTSRUNI, GRIGOR (Moscow 1845 – Tiflis 1892) Educated Tiflis, Moscow and St Petersburg 1864, where fellow Armenians awoke national sentiment in him. Contributed to Meghou Hayastani ('Armenian Bee') and Haykakan Ashkharh ('Armenian World'). Strongly influenced by meeting Mikayel Nalbandian. To Europe in 1865, partly for health reasons and partly to pursue further education. Obtained degree at Heidelberg university in 1870. To Venice to study Armenian with the Mkhitarist Fathers. To Tiflis in 1871, where he founded Mshak ('Labourer') (1872), which he edited with intervals until his death. (Mshak continued until 1920.) Critical of conservative circles; defended idea of liberating Western Armenia.




ATABEKIAN, LEVON (Kusabad (Karabagh) 1875 – 1918) Educated Shushi, then Leipzig and Tübingen universities. Qualified as a doctor at Zurich. Returned to Transcaucasia; active member of Dashnak party, combating anti-Armenian policies of tsar. Left the Dashnaks in 1907 to join the Social Revolutionaries; established Armenian SR organisation. Jailed in 1909; freed in 1912. Member of Transcaucasian Commissariat and of Seim (1918), but did not participate, holding that it was an instrument of the Turks.


ATOM (Harutiun Shahrikian) (Shabin Karahisar 1860 – Ayash 1915) Higher education at the Galata Saray Lycée, Constantinople. Taught in his native town. Moved to Trebizond, where he narrowly escaped the massacre of 1895. Jailed; escaped to Batum and Tiflis. Qualified as lawyer there; worked for Mantashev of Baku. Became prominent leader of Dashnak party. Returned to Constantinople after 1908 constitution. Contributed to Azatamart ('Freedom Fighter') and other Dashnak papers. Member of Armenian National Assembly in Constantinople. Author of works on Ottoman empire and reforms. Killed during 1915 genocide.


AVETISIAN, MKRTICH (M. Terlemezian) (Van 1864 – Persian border 1896) Follower of M. Portugalian. Became leader of the Armenakans of Van in 1885. Organised and led the defence of Van (supported by armed men of all


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three political affiliations) in June 1896. He defended the population against government troops, but was himself killed with others in retreat to Persia.




AZAT VOSTANIK (Melkon Mir Sakoyan) (d. 1913) Hunchak leader. Early collaborator with Paramaz. Nicknamed by the Turks sachli fedayi. One of the organisers of Van resistance, June 1896. Arrested and jailed. Freed on proclamation of Ottoman constitution, 1908. To the Caucasus, and then to Constantinople to study dentistry. Organised defence of Kayseri, April 1909. Joined the Turkish Red Crescent as dentist during Balkan war, 1912. To Van in 1913; assassinated by an Ittihadist.




BABKEN SIUNI (Petros Parian) (Agn (Egin), nr Arabkir 1879 – Constantinople 1896) Educated in Constantinople. Became member of Dashnak party; expelled from school for political activities. Led Ottoman Bank raid (August 1896); killed early on in the siege.


BAGHRAMIAN, Marshal IVAN (Hovhannes) Kh. (Chartakhlu, Azerbaijan, 1897–) Educated Tiflis. Volunteered in 1915 in Russian army. Bolshevik. Fought for Sovietisation of Lori and Georgia (1921). Commander of the First Armenian Cavalry Brigade 1923–31. At the Frunze military Academy 1931–4. On outbreak of second world war in Kiev from where he effected a skilful withdrawal (winter 1941). Commander First Baltic front in Byelorussia and East Prussia (June–October 1944). Promoted to marshal in 1955; deputy defence minister of the USSR under Khrushchev; member of the Central Committee CPSU, 1961. Memoirs published in Moscow in 1971.


BAGHRAMIAN, MOVSES Born Karabagh; settled in Madras. Tutor of Hakob Shahamirian, son of a merchant. Published in 1772 A New Tract, Entitled Admonishment, saying that progress was impossible without political freedom.


BEKZADIAN, ALEXANDER (Shushi 1881 – 1937) Educated Kiev. Social Democrat from 1901, siding with the Bolsheviks. Member of Baku Committee 1904–5. In Europe 1906–14; took part in a Bolshevik conference in Paris in 1911 under the leadership of Lenin. Member of the Bolshevik delegation at the Basle congress, 1912. Returned to the Caucasus in 1915. Engaged in party work after 1917; member of the illegal Transcaucasian district party committee 1919–20. In Moscow at signing of treaty of Moscow, 16 March 1921, but did not sign it. Member of Revkom that declared Armenia Soviet in November 1920. Foreign minister of the Armenian SSR 1920–1.


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Transcaucasian minister of trade, then finance. Member of the presidium of the Transcaucasian party committee from late 1930. Soviet ambassador in Norway. Victim of Stalin/Beria purges.


BEZDJIAN, HARUTIUN Amira (1771–1834) Born Constantinople. Educated at the cathedral school. Entered employment of Duzian family (controller of Ottoman state mint) in 1802. Saved his boss's life from the Janissaries. On the death of Hovhannes Duzian, became head of Ottoman mint. Managed to prevail upon the sultan to abandon plan of exiling 3,000 Armenians into interior of Anatolia. Benefactor to Armenian community in Constantinople; founded Surp Prgich (Holy Saviour) hospital at Yedikule in 1832. Secured various rights for Armenians in Jerusalem. Buried in the Armenian cathedral of Constantinople, on orders from the sultan.


BOGHOS NUBAR PASHA (Alexandria 1851 – Paris 1930) Son of Nubar Pasha, three times prime minister of Egypt. (Family originated from Karabagh.) Educated Egypt and France. Engineer and public works civil servant in Egypt: worked on Cairo water supply and irrigation in the Sudan. One of the founders of Heliopolis. In 1906 founded with others the Armenian General benevolent Union, of which he remained president until 1928. Appointed by the Catholicos in 1912 to be head of an Armenian delegation in Paris to co-ordinate pro-Armenian activities and publicise the Armenian case. To London in September 1916 to be told where he fitted into the Sykes–Picot plan. In 1918 Boghos Nubar helped set up the largely Armenian Légion d'Orient. In 1919 he became president of the Armenian delegation at the Paris peace conference, representing Western Armenians; despite friction with the Republic's delegation, the two achieved a working relationship. Retired from politics in 1921, concentrating on welfare and construction. Boghos Nubar remained in Paris until his death in 1930.








CHARENTS, YEGHISHE (Y. Soghomonian) (Kars 1897–1937) Born to a family which had migrated to Kars from Maku. Educated Kars and Tiflis. First poem published 1912. Briefly with Armenian volunteers at the outbreak of the 1914–18 war. To Moscow in 1915; joined Red Army in 1917. Fought at Tsaritsyn (Stalingrad), November 1917. To Yerevan in 1919, as a teacher. His experiences gave the poetry power and directness. Published in 1921 The Cats and I. To the Lazarian Institute 1921. Published in 1922 a manifesto to take poetry out of the closets and on to the streets. Published the Charentsnameh in


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1923; also Yerkir Nayiri ('The Land of Nairi'). Met Osip Mandelshtam in 1930; published Epikakan Lousapats ('Epical Dawn') in same year, and Girk Chanaparhi ('Book of the Road') in 1933. Denounced as a Trotskyite in 1933; more serious denunciations in 1934. To Moscow in 1935; defended Pasternak. Jailed 1936; died in prison following year. Rehabilitated in a speech by Anastas Mikoyan in Yerevan, 11 March 1954. Much translated within the USSR.


CHELLO (Toros Dzarugian) (Gurun 1871–1893) Educated Yozgat, under Zhirayr. Joined Hunchak party; fought as a fedayi in Anatolia. Arrested and hanged in 1893.


CHERAZ, MINAS (Khaskugh (Hasköy), Constantinople 1852 – Marseilles 1929) Educated Constantinople. Became editor of Yerkragound ('Globe') in 1870. Member of Armenian National Assembly. As secretary-general of the Armenian patriarchate he went to Berlin as part of the Armenian delegation, in 1878. Principal of leading Armenian school in Constantinople, 1886–9. Forced to flee in 1889; passed through Russian Armenia, eventually coming to London, where he founded the monthly L'Arménie. After 1898 he continued its publication in Paris. Returned to Constantinople after the 1908 revolution; elected president of the Armenian National Assembly. To Paris again in 1910; to Marseilles in 1918 for health reasons.




CHOBANIAN, ARSHAG (Constantinople 1872 – Paris 1954) Educated Constantinople. Writer, translator and political figure (Ramkavar). To Paris in 1893 where he met a number of French writers, including Daudet and Zola. Returned to Constantinople in 1894 as editor of Dsaghik ('Flower'). Left Constantinople for Paris again at end of 1895, at height of Hamidian terror. Published Anahid 1909–11 and 1929–49. With Boghos Nubar in the National Delegation at the Paris peace conference, 1919. Visited Yerevan in 1933. Killed in a car crash in Paris.


DAGHAVARIAN, Dr NAZARET (Sivas 1862 – Ayash 1915) Parents settled in Constantinople, where he was educated. To Paris, to study agricultural methods. Returned 1883; headmaster first of school in Sivas, then Constantinople. Back to Paris in 1887, to study medicine at the Sorbonne. In Constantinople again, was arrested and held for four months in 1896. Chief consultant at Armenian National Hospital, Constantinople, in 1899. Jailed again 1900; released through French intervention. Still persecuted, forced to seek refuge in French hospital. To Marseille; in 1905 to Cairo. One of the founders of the Armenian General Benevolent Union in 1906. Returned to Constantinople after 1908 revolution; deputy for Sivas in Ottoman Parliament.


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A founder both of the Ottoman Itilaf party, and the Armenian Sahmanadrakan Ramkavar (Constitutional Democrat) party, 1908. Arrested 24 April 1915; murdered soon after in the genocide.


DAMADIAN, MIHRAN (Constantinople 1863 – Cairo 1945) Born to an Armenian Catholic family. Early education at the school of the Viennese Mkhitarists, Pangalti (Constantinople), and at school of S. Hagop. Then to the Murad Rapayelian school, Venice, graduating in 1880. Returned to Constantinople; became a teacher. Principal of an elementary school in Moush, 1884–8. His first-hand experience of Armenian conditions persuaded him to become a revolutionary in 1886. Returned to Constantinople; joined the Hunchak party. One of the main participants in the Kum Kapu Affray, July 1890. Escaped to Athens, contacted other anti-Ottoman revolutionaries; took part in a demonstration in Athens, July 1891. Returned to Sasun in disguise; organised some Armenians into a guerrilla band. Prepared for British consul at Erzerum a report on Armenian conditions. Arrested in May 1893; taken to Constantinople, where he was amnestied (1894). In Constantinople during the Bab Ali demonstration. Then on orders from the party he fled to Bulgaria. On to Romania; arrested; put aboard a Romanian vessel bound for Constantinople. Saved by the British ship's captain who, mistaking him for a fellow freemason, hid him and dropped him off at Piraeus, Greece. Then to London for the first Hunchak general congress, held in Frithville Gardens, Shepherds Bush (September 1896). To Alexandria, on party work. Resigned from the party after disputes; but in 1908 founded the Sahmanadrakan Ramkavar (Constitutional Democrat) party by uniting the Armenakans with part of the Verakazmial (reformed) Hunchaks. Planned an armed attack on Cilicia in 1913; dissuaded by Catholicos Sahak II of Cilicia. In the USA and Europe (mostly Paris) during the first world war. Associated with the Armenian National Delegation of Boghos Nubar Pasha after the war; its representative in Adana 1919–20. Installed himself in the governor's office and proclaimed himself governor of Cilicia under French mandate, 5 August 1920; forced out the same day. Became leader of the Ramkavar Azatakan party from its foundation in 1921. In Beirut 1929–37; member of AGBU committee; one of the founders of Zartonk ('Awakening') newspaper, 1937. Retired to Cairo, where he died a member of the Armenian Apostolic Church.


DARBINIAN, RUBEN (Artashes Chilingarian) (Akhalkalak 1883 – Boston 1968) Parents moved to Ekaterinodar in his childhood. Educated Tiflis and Ekaterinodar. To Moscow university in 1903 to study law; further study in Germany. Member of Dashnak party; in 1906 president of its North Caucasus Central Committee. Forced to flee in 1909; to Constantinople, where he wrote for Azatamart. Returned to Tiflis 1914; on to Baku as editor of Dashnak papers. To Moscow with Simon Hakobian in 1918 to try to secure Bolshevik aid against Turks besieging Baku; met with hostility when news of the murder


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of the 26 commissars reached Moscow. To Yerevan in 1919; minister of justice in early 1920 in Khatisian's government. Editor of Dashnak party organ Harach. Tried to flee the approach of the Bolsheviks; apprehended and jailed. Released by the February 1921 Dashnak rebellion; editor of Azat Hayastan ('Free Armenia'). Escaped the return of the Bolsheviks by going to Tabriz. Eventually settled in Boston, where he assumed editorship of Hairenik (March 1922). Began publication of Hairenik Amsagir ('Hairenik Monthly'), recording memoirs of Dashnaks when they held power. Advocated strong anti-Russian stance. Editor from 1948 of Hairenik newspapers, taking a severe attitude towards Ramkavars.




DJAMALIAN, ARSHAK (Yelizavetpol (Gandja) 1882 – Paris 1940) Educated locally and at Echmiadzin seminary. Joined Dashnak party. Took part in Armeno–Tatar conflict; jailed for 7 months for being party to assassination of tsarist gendarme. To Germany for further study. Returned to Transcaucasia 1909; became editor of Harach at Tiflis. Member of Dashnak Bureau 1914; organiser of the volunteer groups. Fought in Van region, alongside Anastas Mikoyan. Member of Transcaucasian Seim, 1917; delegate at signing of Erzindjan truce. To Berlin, to see if Germany would act as moderating influence on Turkey. Armenia's ambassador in Tiflis after May 1918. To Yerevan 1919; became Member of Parliament. Minister of Communications in 1920. Extended the railway. Signed agreement of 10 August 1920 ending Armeno–Bolshevik hostility in Sharur and Nakhichevan. To Tiflis, Constantinople and USA after Armenia's Sovietisation. Participated in the 1921 Riga talks between Dashnaks and Communists. Represented Dashnaktsutiun at the 1925 (Marseilles) meeting of the Second International. On editorial board of Droshak 1925–33. Member of the party's Bureaux until 1933. Helped establish an 'Armeno–Georgian union' in 1936. Travelled on party work in Greece, Egypt and Lebanon. Died in Paris.


DRO (Drastamat Kanayan) (Igdir 1884 – Boston 1956) Educated Yerevan Gymnasium. Attended military school. Joined Dashnak party. Very active in 1903–5; with others assassinated Prince Nakashidze and General Alikhanov; fought the Tatars in Zangezur. Fled to Turkey after proclamation of constitution in 1908. Returned to Transcaucasia in 1914; one of the commanders of the volunteer units. Wounded; decorated by the tsar. In 1917 appointed by the Armenian National Council military commissar of the Ararat region. Defended the Bash Abaran defile during the battle of Sardarabad, May 1918. With Aram organised the dictatorship of Armenia until the government arrived in July 1918. Commander of the front during Armeno–Georgian war, December 1918. In early and mid-1920 commander of the Surmalu front. Minister of war in Vratsian's government, November 1920. When H. Terterian signed


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agreement on hand-over of power to Bolsheviks. Became dictator of Armenia until arrival of Soviet forces. To Moscow 1921; received amicably by Stalin. Later to Paris; settled in Romania. Co-operated with the Nazis on the Crimean and north Caucasian fronts during the second world war, commanding an Armenian battalion; supporters claim that this was to ensure the survival of Armenians, should the Nazis reach Armenia; opponents claim that he acted out of Nazi sympathies. Arrested at Heidelberg by the Americans at the end of the war; released after one month as an 'old exile'. Settled in Lebanon, making frequent trips to Egypt, Europe and the USA. To America for medical treatment in December 1955; died in Boston 8 March 1956.


DSERENTS (Dr Hovsep Shishmanian) (Constantinople 1822 – Tiflis 1888) Educated San Lazzaro, Venice. Returned to teach at Armenian school in Ortaköy (Constantinople). To Tiflis; travelled in Russian Armenia (1843). To Paris in 1848 to study medicine and to teach at the Samuel Muradian school there. Returned to Constantinople in 1853 as a doctor. Wrote in Armenian journals and participated in Armenian organisations such as the Benevolent Union; said by some to have taken part in the Zeitun revolt of 1862. Keen on improving condition of Armenians by introducing better agricultural methods. Settled in Cyprus in 1875; wrote historical romances.


DUMAN, NIKOL (Kishlak village, Khachen, Karabagh 1867 – Baku 1914) Attended the diocesan school of Shushi until 1887. Worked for two years in Shushi, then spent three years teaching in the North Caucasus. Joined the Dashnak party. To Tabriz in 1891, ostensibly as a teacher but with the real intention of becoming a revolutionary. To Salmas in 1893; led a band of 50 men against Van in 1895, having several dust-ups with Kurds en route. Returning (May 1896) there were more skirmishes, notably at the Armenian monastery of Derik, just inside Persia. Arrested; soon released. Planned a punitive expedition against Kurds of the Mazrik tribe, who had served the sultan's ends in the Hamidiye regiments; this plan endorsed by Mikayelian in November 1896, and carried out at Khanasor, 24–5 July 1897. To Baku, where he worked for an oil company. Established a new guerrilla group in Persia in 1904, with the intention of going to Sasun; stopped at the border. At the time of the Armeno–Tatar clashes, he was initially despatched to Baku on party organisation and Armenian self-defence; then assigned to the Yerevan sector. Left Transcaucasia in 1909; successively to Constantinople, Egypt and Bulgaria. Participated in the Copenhagen conference of the Second International in 1910. To Trebizond, Erzerum and Van in late 1911. Banished from Van as a result of representations from the Russian consul. To Persia, where he participated in the Persian constitutional movement, fighting in the defence of Tabriz. Returned to Transcaucasia; contracted tuberculosis in Tiflis; taken from hospital and jailed in Metekh castle in May 1914. Then sent to Baku. Failed in a suicide attempt; died in Baku, September 1914.


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EMIN, HOVSEP (Joseph) (Hamadan 1726 – Madras 1809) To Baghdad in 1731; to Isfahan in 1742; to Basra, thence to India. To England in 1751 as a deck-hand aboard the Walpole. Lodged at Wapping; endured the discomforts of beer-drinking to gain the respect of the common people. Became a porter at £8 per annum. Chanced to meet Edmund Burke; joined the Duke of Cumberland's regiment. Took part in the expedition against St Malo in 1758. Resolved to travel to Armenia; travelled thither in 1759 via Alexandretta and Aleppo. Returned to London; on to St Petersburg in 1761. In the service of King Heraclius of Georgia in 1763; took part in many plots, counter-plots and pseudo-plots in the Caucasus 1763–8. Travelled to Karabagh and Zangezur. Returned to India in 1768, in an attempt to raise money for a small army. Settled in Madras in 1773 and joined the group of patriotic Armenians there. Again in Persia in 1775; back to India in 1783. Thought by some to have been the co-author of Vorogait Parats. His autobiography was published (in English) in London 1792.




GAI (Haik Bzhishkian) (Tabriz 1887–1937) His father a schoolmaster, and member of the Hunchak party. The family moved to Tiflis in 1901. Attended the Nersesian Academy. Took part in revolutionary movement in 1903. One of those who attempted the life of Prince Golitsyn in 1905. Expelled from school; went to Baku to work as a labourer, and to write articles in Social Democratic papers. Exiled in 1912 to Astrakhan; amnestied at outbreak of war; he enrolled in the imperial army, and was sent to a military school in Tiflis. In 1915 he joined the Hunchak VIth volunteer troop; serving on the Turkish front he assumed command when his commander was killed. Decorated. In Moscow during February 1917 revolution. After October revolution participated in the defence of Moscow. In 1918 led forces formed by himself against the White Czechs and White Cossacks. Commanded the 24th Rifle Division; took Simbirsk (Ulyanovsk) for the Reds; his forces given the title 'Samara–Ulyanovsk Iron Division'. In 1919 commanded the First Army of the Eastern Front; later commanded the Southern Front. During the Soviet–Polish war of 1920 he commanded the 3rd Mounted Corps with distinction, reaching the Vistula. In August, covering the retreat of the 4th Army, he was cut off and interned in East Prussia. Highly decorated. To general staff academy in Moscow after the civil war, graduating in 1922, upon which he was appointed commissar for military affairs in Armenia. Organised Armenian Red Army. To Moscow's Frunze military academy 1925–7. Professor and head of military history department at the Zhukovsky air force academy 1933. Killed by NKVD agents 'while resisting arrest' on 11 December 1937. Posthumously rehabilitated.


GAREGIN I, Catholicos (G. Hovsepiants) (Nakhichevan 1867 – Antilias


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1952) Attended Gevorgian seminary, Echmiadzin. Ordained deacon in 1890. To Leipzig in 1892 to study theology. Received degree in 1897; returned to Echmiadzin; ordained celibate priest. To Tiflis in 1900, where came into intellectual contact with Hovhannes Tumanian, Shirvanzade, Nikol Aghbalian and others. Headmaster of the Yerevan diocesan school, 1901–4. Dean of Echmiadzin seminary 1905. Counsellor to Catholicos Mateos Izmirlian 1909–11. Travelled in Armenian communities of Russia 1916–17. Consecrated bishop in 1917. Took part in the battle of Sardarabad (1918). In Kars at the time of its fall (November 1920). Member of Armenia's institute of science following Sovietisation; contributed to its journal Banber ('Messenger'). Toured Armenian communities in Soviet Russia in 1924 to raise money for the seminary. Elected primate of Armenians of Russia, Crimea and Nor Nakhichevan in 1927. Delegated by the Catholicos to visit Europe and the USA in 1934 to try to heal the wounds which followed the murder of Archbishop Ghevond Tourian in 1933. Primate of the Armenians of North America 1938–43. Elected Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia (at Antilias, Lebanon) in May 1943. Took up the post in 1945. Leader of a delegation representing Cilician sees at the election of the Catholicos at Echmiadzin (June 1945). Took part in the consecration of Catholicos Gevorg VI; initiated period of co-operation between Echmiadzin and Antilias. Encouraged cultural and intellectual activities at Antilias; author of over 30 books. Died at Antilias.


GAREGIN II, Co-adjutor Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia (Kessab 1932–) Baptismal name Nshan Sargisian. Educated locally, and at the seminary at Antilias (from 1946). Ordained deacon in 1949. Ordained vardapet, taking the name Garegin, in 1952. Appointed dean of the Antilias seminary in 1957. To Oxford university 1957–9; his B.Litt. thesis, 'The Council of Chalcedon and the Armenian Church', was published by SPCK. Director of the Antilias seminary, and editor of its journal, 1959–67. Consecrated bishop in 1964. Appointed chancellor of the Cilician catholicosate 1969–71. Attended seminars in Romania and Moscow (at the Zagorsky monastery), both in 1969; has attended, as observer or participant, theological congresses in Rome (Vatican II), Montreal, Addis Ababa and London. Member of the executive committee, World Council of Churches, 1970–7. Prelate of the New Julfa–Isfahan diocese 1971–3. Prelate of North America (representing Cilician catholicosate based at New York 1974–7. Elected co-adjutor Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia, 1977.


GEVORG V, Catholicos (G. Sureniantz) (Tiflis 1846 – Echmiadzin 1930) Educated locally and at Echmiadzin seminary. Rose in Church hierarchy, eventually being elected Catholicos in 1911. In co-operation with Russian viceroy Vorontsov-Dashkov established the Armenian National Delegation in Paris, in 1912. Remained in Echmiadzin in the critical days of May 1918,


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against the advice of the military authorities. Reorganised Armenian ecclesiastical procedures May 1926.


GEVORG VI, Catholicos (G. Cheorekjian) (Nor Nakhichevan 1869 – Echmiadzin 1954) Educated locally and Gevorgian Seminary, Echmiadzin. Taught at Nor Nakhichevan. To Leipzig to study theology and philosophy; he also attended the Conservatoire there. Returned first to Echmiadzin then to Nor Nakhichevan, teaching music, Church history and ethics until 1913. Ordained celibate priest in 1913. To Echmiadzin, in 1916, to assist in relief work. Consecrated bishop in 1917. Worked largely in Georgia during the 1920s. In 1938, upon the death of Catholicos Khoren, he was appointed locum tenens. Supported Soviet authorities during the second world war; condemned Dro for working with the Nazis. Encouraged donations to build Sasuntzi Davit tank corps. To Moscow in April 1945 to meet Stalin. Elected Catholicos in June. Appealed to world powers for retrocession of Kars and Ardahan. Re-established seminary at Echmiadzin.




GHUKASIAN, GHUKAS (Kalaran, Yerevan province, 1899 – Kars 1920) Became Marxist while a student. Joined the Bolsheviks in 1917. In 1919 he represented Armenian Bolshevik youth at convention of Spartak youth organisation at Tiflis. Sent to Kars in February 1920 to prepare for May uprising. Killed in battle with the authorities on 14 May.


GIULKHANDANIAN, ABRAHAM (nr Yerevan 1875 – Paris 1946) Educated Echmiadzin seminary. Went on to study law. Joined Dashnak party in 1894. Active in Baku region, especially during Armeno–Tatar conflicts of 1905. Arrested by the authorities, and briefly jailed. Among the organisers of the volunteer units in 1914. Worked with Rostom during 1917–18. Member of Armenian Parliament; minister of information and posts in Khatisian's government; also minister of justice. In Khatisian's delegation that signed the treaty of Alexandropol, December 1920. To Romania after Sovietisation of Armenia; afterwards to Paris. During the second world war he was vice-president of the 'Armenian National Council' in Berlin which came to an agreement with the Nazis. Arrested by the French on the termination of the war. Died 1 January 1946. Author of books on the Caucasus, the Armeno–Tatar conflict, Armenian revolutionary women, etc.






HRAIR (Armenak Ghazarian) (Aharonk, Sasun 1864–1904) Educated S. Karapet school and Moush central school. Became a teacher. Some


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revolutionary activity in Sasun, 1891–3. Active in 1894 Sasun rebellion. To Transcaucasia, where he joined the Dashnak party. Travelled to Romania on party business. Severely critical of internecine struggles of Armenian armchair revolutionaries; believed in co-operation of all Armenian fighters. Chief Dashnak agent in Moush, Sasun, Bitlis and Akhlat, 1895–1904; the chief spirit of the 1904 Sasun rebellion. 'Hrair' means 'man of fire'. His other revolutionary soubriquets were D'zhokhk ('the hell') and Ourvakan ('the ghost').


ISAHAKIAN, AVETIK (Alexandropol 1875 – Yerevan 1957) Educated locally and at the Gevorgian seminary, Echmiadzin. To Europe (Vienna and Leipzig) in 1893 for further study. Returned home in 1895. On a second visit to Europe (1899) he met Father Alishan in Venice. A lyric poet, also influenced by the bards of earlier centuries. Joined Dashnak party; arrested in 1908 and jailed for six months. His masterpiece, Abul Ala al-Maari, was published in 1909. He left for Europe in 1912. Quit the Dashnak party. Returned to Soviet Armenia in 1926; respected there, and called 'the master'. Left again for Paris in 1930, returning permanently to Yerevan in 1936. Participated in the conclave which elected Catholicos Gevorg VI in 1945.


ISAKOV, Admiral IVAN (Hovhannes) (Hadjikend, near Kars, 1894–1968) on the death of his father Stepan Ter Isahakian the family moved to Tiflis. At naval school during the first world war. Demonstrated for the Bolsheviks at Petrograd; transferred. Sent to the Caspian sea by Lenin in 1920; took part in the civil war. Chief of the naval section of the supreme staff of the Red Army in 1929. Deputy minister of Soviet naval building in 1938. During the second world war took part in naval operations in Baltic and North seas; in 1942 served in the Black Sea; wounded. Appointed a deputy minister of the fleet; retired in 1947, but re-appointed in 1954. Appointed admiral of the Soviet fleet in 1955. Elected corresponding member of the Soviet academy of sciences in 1958.


ISHKHAN (Nikoghayos Poghosian) (Karabagh 1879 – nr Van 1915) Educated Shushi. Joined Dashnak party; active first in Shushi district. One of the leaders of the Khanasor expedition, 24–5 July 1897. From 1905 in Van. Contributed to Ashkhatank ('Labour', Van). Treacherously murdered with three companions when investigating (at the behest of the Ottoman governor) a local trouble near Van in mid-April 1915.


IZMIRLIAN, MATEOS (Constantinople 1848 – Echmiadzin 1911) Ordained a celibate priest in 1869. Primate of the Armenians of Egypt 1886–90. Returned to Constantinople in 1890; elected Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople, in 1894; known as the Iron Patriarch; supported the Armenian revolutionary movement. Exiled to Jerusalem by the Ottoman authorities in 1896; returned


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to Constantinople in 1908 on the proclamation of the constitution; re-elected patriarch (1908–9). In 1908 he was also elected Catholicos of all Armenians at Echmiadzin (as Mateos II) in which post he served from 1909 until his death.


KACHAZNUNI, Ruben HOVHANNES (Akhaltsikhe 1868 – ?Yerevan 1938) His family originated from Erzerum. Attended Russian and German universities, studying architecture and mining engineering. Settled in Baku; joined the Dashnak party. Published a work on poets of eastern Armenia (1902). Visited Erzerum after Ottoman constitution (1908). Criticised establishment of volunteer units (1914). After 1917, he was a member of the Armenian National Council; in November one of nine Dashnaks chosen to represent the party in the new Constitution Assembly, Petrograd. Chief spokesman for Dashnaktsutiun in the Transcaucasian Seim (February–May 1918). A member of the Transcaucasian delegation at the Trebizond conference (March). Minister of welfare in Chkhenkeli's government (Transcaucasian). After Armenia's independence, he was a member of the delegation that signed the treaty of Batum (4 June 1918). Appointed first prime minister of Armenia, arriving in Yerevan on 17 July. Criticised by hard-line Dashnaks for his conciliatory policies. Travelled to Europe and America in April–May 1919 (together with a Populist minister) to obtain funds and aid. Relinquished premiership of Khatisian, August 1919. Approached to take premiership again in November 1920; accepted, but unable to form a government. Arrested after Sovietisation; released by February revolt. Left Armenia for Europe in 1921. Published manifesto at a Dashnak convention, Bucarest, March 1923, entitled Dashnaktsutiun has Nothing More to Do, in which he argued that Dashnaktsutiun should terminate its existence as a party and all Armenians should support Soviet Armenia. Repatriated to Soviet Armenia and worked there; killed during Stalin/Beria purges.


KAMAR KATIBA (Rapayel Patkanian) (Nor Nakhichevan 1830–1892) To Moscow in 1840 to study at the Lazarian Institute. To Tiflis in 1850 to assist his father in the publication of the weekly Airarat, which he had started. To the university of Dorpat (modern Tartu, Estonia) in 1851, but left the following year owing to shortage of funds. To Moscow; helped organise Armenian literary club (1854) which became known acronymically as Kamar Katiba, later becoming his own pen name. To St Petersburg in 1855; received degree in oriental studies in 1860. Contributed to Hiusisapayl ('Northern Light') and Krounk ('Crane'). Published his own paper Hiusis ('North') 1863–4. Returned to Nor Nakhichevan in 1866; devoted himself to education in Rostov and Bessarabia. In his poetry he advocated that Armenians make a new start, minimising the past. His poems express the exaltation felt by Armenians at the crushing of the Ottoman armies by those of Russia in 1877–8, and bitterly echo the disillusion and gloom felt after the Berlin settlement. He visited Constantinople in 1890.


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KAMO (Simon Ter-Petrosian) (Gori 1882 – Tiflis 1922) His father a rich contractor. A mischief-maker as a boy. Learnt less than nothing at school, forgetting what he had known beforehand. Expelled in 1898. Sent to Tiflis to study; coached by Stalin. Nicknamed 'Kamo' from his ignorance of Russian ('kamu' means 'to whom'). Joined the secret Social Democrat organisation of Tiflis in 1902. In February 1903 hurled seditious leaflets from the balcony of the Tiflis Armenian theatre into the orchestra, calmly leaving before the police arrived to search all other members of the audience. Arrested for carrying revolutionary literature in November 1903; spent four months in solitary confinement; contracted malaria; escaped while convalescing (September 1904). Wounded five times during 1905 revolution. To St Petersburg in March 1906, where he met Lenin. Leader of the Caucasian 'expropriators' from 1903, his activities culminating in the raid on the state bank of Tiflis, 13 June 1907, which netted 250,000 roubles for the Bolsheviks. Took the money to St Petersburg disguised as a Georgian nobleman. Fled to Berlin; betrayed by an agent provocateur in November 1907, arrested and imprisoned; feigned extreme insanity in order to avoid repatriation. Successfully hoaxed Berlin's leading psychiatrists. After four months of raving in his cell, transferred to an asylum (May 1908). Handed over to the Russians in October 1909; imprisoned in Metekh castle, then moved to Tiflis asylum. Escaped in August 1911, foiling subsequent police search by hiding in the police administration building, Tiflis. To Constantinople, then Paris (where he again met Lenin); returned to Tiflis in late 1912. Arrested after another hold-up (January 1913); sentenced to death March 1913; amnestied, because of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. His sentence commuted to 20 years' hard labour. To Kharkov in 1915. Released in March 1917. Sent by Shahumian to Petrograd with correspondence for Lenin, December 1917; returned to Tiflis with Shahumian's appointment as extraordinary commissar. To Astrakhan by boat in 1919. Formed a partisan group which operated near Kursk and Oryol. Arrested by Mensheviks in Tiflis, January 1920; briefly jailed. To Baku in March 1920 to prepare its Sovietisation. To Moscow in May 1920; worked in foreign trade ministry. Returned to Tiflis, working in finance commissariat. Died in a road accident in Tiflis, July 1922. The town formerly known as Nor Bayazid now bears his name.




KARAKHAN, LEV (Levon) (Kutaisi province 1889–1937) Social Democrat (Bolshevik) from 1904. Studied law at St Petersburg university 1910–15. Active in trade union movement from 1912. Arrested autumn 1915; exiled to Tomsk. Member of the Petrograd Soviet, and of the Petrograd military-revolutionary committee in 1917. A diplomat after the Bolshevik revolution. Secretary and member of the Soviet delegation at Brest-Litovsk, 1918. Soviet deputy foreign minister in March 1918. Negotiated treaties with China


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(September 1920), Persia (December 1920 – January 1921); appointed Soviet ambassador to Poland in August 1921, and to China (1923–6). Again Soviet deputy minister of foreign affairs in 1927. Ambassador to Turkey, 1934–7. Sentenced to death on 16 December 1937 on trumped-up charges of terrorism and espionage. Later rehabilitated.


KASIAN, SARGIS (S. Ter-Gasparian) (Shushi 1876–1937) Educated in Baku. Higher education in Berlin and Leipzig; became interested in German Social Democrat movement. Initially a member of the Hunchak party; sent with its representative to the Dresden meeting of the German Socialist party, 1903. Joined Bolsheviks in 1905. Exiled to Siberia before the first world war; returned to Tiflis in 1917. Fought the Turkish advance in 1918. Went to Yerevan in July 1919 to tighten party organisation. President of the Revkom which on 29 November 1920 declared Armenia Soviet; minister of agriculture in the first Soviet government. Ousted by the February 1921 rebellion, and not replaced in April. Member of the presidium of the Central Committee of the Transcaucasian Communist party 1927–31. Victim of Stalinist purges; rehabilitated later on.


KAZAZIAN, HAGOP Pasha (Pera, Constantinople 1832–91) Educated locally. Initially a businessman, later entering the Ottoman civil service. Served principally as a banker. Also a member of the Armenian National Assembly, Constantinople. In 1879 appointed head of the sultan's privy purse; when this became a ministry, he became treasury minister. Showed great ability at raising Ottoman loans and easing payment of its debts. Died from a fall from his horse. Given a state funeral.


KELEGIAN, DIRAN (Kayseri 1862 – Ayash 1915) Parents settled in Constantinople when he was six months old. Educated locally; went to Marseilles in 1880 to study business administration. Wrote for Turkish newspapers Manzumiye Efkiar and Saadet ('Prosperity'), becoming managing editor of the latter. Left for Europe after the massacres of 1894–5; wrote articles for the Daily Mail, Daily Graphic, Contemporary Review and Nineteenth Century. Returned to Constantinople in 1898; wrote for Sabah ('Morning'; Turkish). Left Constantinople again, for Egypt, where he worked on the editorial staff of the Journal de Caire, then as editor of La Bourse égyptienne. Also worked on the Egyptian Gazette and Yeni Fikir ('New Idea'; Turkish). Returned to Constantinople after the constitutional revolution of 1908, to become editor of Sabah. Also wrote regularly for Armenian papers. Compiled a French–Turkish dictionary. Member of the Sahmanadrakan Ramkavar (Constitutional Democrat) party. Arrested 24 April 1915; murdered during the genocide.


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KERI (Arshak Gafavian) (Erzerum – Ruwanduz 1916) became member of the Dashnak party. Took part in 1904 Sasun rebellion, 1905 Armeno–Tatar conflict, and with Yeprem in Persian constitutional revolution, leading the Caucasian troops after the death of Yeprem. Commander of the 4th volunteer troop in 1914; took part in the battle of Sarikamish (at the Barduz pass). Relieved the besieged Russian and Armenian troops at Ruwanduz in 1916 by a daring and successful attack, in which he was killed. His body was transferred to Tiflis and buried there.


KEVORK CHAVUSH (Moush province c. 1870 – Sulukh 1907) Elementary education at S. Garabed monastery 1876–8. Left school to join Arapo and fedayis; Arapo arrested; Kevork assassinated Arapo's betrayer. Became an associate of Murad (H. Boyadjian) and M. Damadian in 1892. Arrested in 1894; sentenced to 15 years in jail. Escaped; joined Dashnak part; served under Serop, Gurgen and Andranik. Participated in 1904 Sasun uprising; a leading fedayi until his death.


KHAN-AZAT, RUBEN (Nshan Karapetian) (Yerevan 1862 – Tabriz 1929) Higher education at the University of Montpellier. One of the six founders of the Hunchakian Revolutionary Party at Geneva. To Tiflis in 1890, in an abortive attempt to found another branch of the party. Travelled throughout Ottoman lands and Transcaucasia on party work. To the USA in 1893 on the same mission.


KHANDJIAN, AGHASI (Van 1901 – Tiflis 1936) The son of an Armenakan leader. The family took refuge from the 1915 massacres in the monastery at Echmiadzin. He entered the Echmiadzin seminary, then to Yerevan school. Joined a Marxist youth group in 1918; one of the founders of the Spartak Bolshevik youth organisation in 1919. Arrested twice by the authorities of the republic. To Sverdlov university (Russia) in 1921. Active in Leningrad 1922–8. Sided with Stalin against Zinoviev in 1925. Returned to Armenia in 1928; became First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Armenian CP in 1930. With the confidence of Stalin he purged Armenia of Old Bolsheviks, specifically Sargis Kasian. Crushed the opposition to collectivisation. Worked for retrocession of Karabagh and Nakhichevan to the Armenian SSR. Murdered by Beria in July 1936, due to the latter's suspicion and jealousy. Despite being Stalin's man in Armenia, he was genuinely popular with the peasants. Subsequently he has been rehabilitated.






KHATISIAN, ALEXANDER (Tiflis 1876 – Paris 1945) His father was controller of the government estates in Tiflis province. Educated in Tiflis state


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school; then to Moscow university for 3 years to study medicine, and to Kharkov for 2 years. Further study in Germany. Political activities began in 1900. Counsellor to the administration of Tiflis 1902–6; assistant to the mayor of Tiflis 1906–10; mayor of Tiflis 1910 and 1917. President of the Armenian National Council 1915–17; chief organiser of the Armenian volunteers. Joined the Dashnak party in 1917. Member of Transcaucasian delegation at the Trebizond negotiations, March 1918. Minister of finance in Transcaucasian Cabinet. Delegate at the Batum conference, May 1918. Negotiated and signed the treaty of Batum, 4 June 1918. To Constantinople to revise the treaty at the insistence of Germany in the same month. Foreign minister June–November 1918. Minister of welfare briefly in November 1918 after assassination of Khachatur Karjikian; minister of the interior after the death of Aram. Acting prime minister spring 1919, during Kachaznuni's absence. Prime minister of Armenia, August 1919–May 1920. After relinquishing premiership, travelled to Tiflis, Constantinople, Paris, London, Rome and the Balkans soliciting aid for the republic. Chief negotiator at the Alexandropol conference, November–December 1920; signed the treaty of Alexandropol. Settled in Paris after Armenia became Soviet. Wrote Hayastani Hanrapetutian dsagumn ou zargatsumë ('The Origin and Development of the Armenian Republic' (1930, rev. edn. 1968)) and Kaghakapeti me hishataknerë ('The Memoirs of a Mayor'). During the second world war he worked for an Armenian refugee organisation. Arrested after the liberation of France; set free soon after. But his health had deteriorated. Died 10 March 1945.


KHRIMIAN 'Hairik', MKRTICH (Catholicos Mkrtich I) (Van 1820 – Echmiadzin 1907) Brought up by an uncle, who taught him weaving. Travelled to Echmiadzin in 1841. Married in 1845. Further travels, to Jerusalem, Constantinople and Cilicia (in 1851). After the death of his wife and daughter, ordained a celibate priest in 1854. Began publication of Ardzvi Vaspurakan (in Constantinople) in 1855. Returned to the Varak monastery as abbot in 1858; continued printing the journal there. As abbot of the monastery of S. Karapet, Moush, began another journal Ardzvik Darono in 1863. Consecrated bishop in 1868. Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople, 1869–73; compelled to resign by the Ottoman government. At the instance of Patriarch Nerses Varzhabedian he travelled to Berlin with Archbishop Khoren Nar Bey, Minas Cheraz and Stepan Papazian in June 1878 to put the Armenian case to the congress; only permitted to submit a written memorandum. After the congress he travelled to Paris and London. Returning to Constantinople, he gave a famous sermon in the cathedral at Scutari comparing the 'iron spoons' of the Balkan peoples to the 'paper spoons' of the Armenians. Exiled to Jerusalem by the government in 1889. Elected Catholicos of all Armenians 17 May 1892; forbidden by the Ottomans to travel to Echmiadzin across Ottoman territory (so compelled to travel Jaffa–Alexandria–Trieste–Vienna–Volochinsk–Odessa–Sevastopol–Batum–Tiflis). Supported Dashnaktsutiun in his en-


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cyclical of 1896. Confronted by the tsarist seizure of the property of the Armenian Church, June 1903; reacted with patience. Patient, too, in 1906, when, at an assembly called to clarify Polozhenye, he was faced with anti-religious tirades. Clarified relations between the patriarch of Constantinople and the catholicoses in 1907, emphasising the 'primary, universal and apostolic see of Echmiadzin'.


KHUDIAKOV, Air Marshal S. A. (Armenak Khanferiants) (Karabagh 1906–1950) To Baku to study; then worked in Mantashev's oilfield. Joined the Bolsheviks. Organised Red Guards of Baku, April 1918. In Astrakhan during Russian civil war. Saved from drowning by his friend Sergei Khudiakov; when the latter was killed fighting the Whites, Khanferniants assumed his name as a memorial. Admitted to Tiflis Cavalry School 1929. To the Ukraine, and later to Moscow to the air force academy. Served mainly on the western front during the second world war, becoming an air marshal in 1944. Took part in the Yalta conference as a military adviser.


KOCHINIAN, ANTON (Yerevan province 1913–) Joined Communist youth in 1928, and the party in 1938. Graduated as agriculturalist in 1935. Mainly on party work until the second world war. Joined the Central Committee of the Armenian CP in March 1940. Third Secretary of the ACP 1946–52; appointed First Secretary in 1952. In November 1952 became prime minister of the Armenian SSR: also a member of the Supreme Soviet of Armenia and the USSR. Dropped from premiership in 1966, becoming First secretary of the ACP. Replaced in this post in November 1974.


KOMITAS (Soghomon Soghomonian) (Kutahya 1869 – Paris 1935) Orphaned at the age of 11. Taken by the local prelate to Echmiadzin seminary in 1881. Graduated from the seminary in 1893. Ordained celibate priest. To the Berlin conservatoire in 1896 to study music under Richard Schmidt; also attended the Friedrich Wilhelm university studying philosophy of music. Appointed choirmaster and head of music department at Echmiadzin seminary in 1899; became first non-European member of the International Musical Society. Collected more than 3,000 folk songs – Armenian, Kurdish, Arabic, Turkish and Persian (most subsequently lost). Gave concerts in Paris, Geneva, Berne, Venice, Constantinople, Cairo and Alexandria. Published first ever collection of Kurdish folk songs, 13 in number, Jurgensen, 1904. His song The Homeless was praised by Debussy, on hearing it in 1906, when Komitas visited Paris. Met Egon Wellesz in Vienna, who admired his harmony and counterpoint. Left for Constantinople in 1910, where he founded a choir of 300 voices named Kusan ('Minstrel'). Encountered some opposition from conservative religious circles for his use of religious melodies. Arrested 24 April 1915; deported to Chankiri; driven mad by the sight of the slaughter of fellow Armenians; saved from death. Put in an asylum in Constantinople in 1916;


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taken to Paris in 1919, where he died in 1935. His body was transferred to Yerevan in 1937.


LEO (Arakel Babakhanian) (Shushi 1860 – Yerevan 1935) Received patchy education, but read very widely; soon writing historical and political articles. Wrote in Mshak from 1895; became its editor in 1918. Opposed the policies and activities of Dashnaktsutiun; joined the Populist (Zhoghovrdakan) party on its formation in 1917. An adviser to the Seim delegation in the Trebizond negotiations with the Turks in March 1918. President of the Karabagh Armenian Patriotic Association 1918–20. Welcomed the formation of the Armenian SSR. His Hayots Patmutiun ('History of the Armenians') is famous (vol. I, Tiflis, 1917; vols. II–III, Yerevan, 1946–7).


LORIS-MELIKOV, General Count MIKAYEL T. (Tiflis 1825 – Nice 1888) Educated Lazarian Institute, Moscow. Joined a Hussar regiment. To the Caucasus in 1847; gained a distinguished reputation in bringing the region from military to civilian rule. (Fictionalised portrait of him in Tolstoy's Hadji Murat.) Commander in Russo–Turkish war of 1877–8; took Ardahan; repulsed by Ahmed Mukhtar at Zivin; defeated Mukhtar at Aladja; stormed Kars and laid siege to Erzerum. Received title of Count. Temporary governor of Lower Volga in 1879; great success in sustaining morale during an outbreak of plague, so he was transferred to combat nihilism and anarchism in central Russia. Appointed chief of supreme executive commission dealing with revolutionary activity; showed a preference for legal against extra- legal methods. Suggested striking at the root of the problem by introducing economic reforms. Came to the attention of tsar Alexander II in 1880, who appointed him minister of the interior (with exceptional powers). Proposed scheme of reforms; this was negated by the assassination of the tsar in March 1881. Loris-Melikov resigned under the reactionary policies of Alexander III; lived in exile until his death.


LUKASHIN, SARGIS (S. Sraponian) (1884–1937) Joined the Social Democrats (Bolsheviks). With Vahan Terian discussed Turkish Armenia with Lenin in November 1917. Member of Miasnikian's Cabinet of May 1921; president of the people's economic council and secretary of the Central Committee of the Armenian CP. Dropped from the latter post in February/March 1922, and appointed prime minister of Armenia. Transferred to Tiflis in 1925 to assume a position in the Transcaucasian SFSR. Victim of Stalinist purges; later rehabilitated.


MALKUM Khan, Mirza (New Julfa 1833 – Rome 1908) Educated at the Samuel Muradian school, Paris, 1843–51. Returned to Persia; converted to Shia Islam; entered government service. Selected as instructor in the newly established Tehran Polytechnic in 1852. To Paris in the diplomatic service in


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1857. Introduced freemasonry into Persia in 1859; exiled by Shah Nasir od-Din for doing so in 1862. Pardoned; given post in the Constantinople embassy. To Tehran in 1872 as assistant to Grand Vizier Moshir od-Dowlah. Chief of Persian legation in London (later ambassador) 1872–88; visited Berlin at the time of the congress (1878), advising Armenians to take an anti-Russian stance. Lost his position in 1889 as the result of a scandal over selling a cancelled concession for a lottery. Attacked the shah and Persian government from London; edited from 1890 the news-sheet Qanun, which was banned in Persia but read by the shah and his ministers. Became recognised as the most important Persian moderniser of the century. Pardoned and reinstated by Shah Mozaffar od-Din in 1898; appointed ambassador to Italy, with title of Nezam od-Dowlah. Remained at this post until his death.






MIASNIKIAN, ALEXANDER (Nor Nakhichevan 1886 – near Tiflis 1925) Educated Lazarian Institute, Moscow. Graduated from Moscow university's law faculty in 1911. Member of Social Democrat (Bolshevik) party 1906. Arrested; escaped to Baku; returned to Moscow. Enlisted in the Imperial army 1914; service largely on the western front. Head of the Bolshevik faction on the western front, early February 1917. With Frunze he founded the newspaper Zvezda in Minsk. In Minsk during the October Revolution; briefly acting supreme commander-in-chief, western front. In spring 1918 commander, Volga front. Minister of war in Byelorussia, 1919. In Moscow 1919–21, becoming secretary of the Moscow party committee. To Armenia after the suppression of the revolt of February–April 1921, as prime minister; had a fair measure of success in restoring law and order, fighting famine and epidemic, organising small-scale repatriation and rebuilding the country. An enemy of illiteracy. In his premiership the Transcaucasian Confederation was established (11 March 1922) out of the three republics; it later became the Transcaucasian SFSR. Presidium member of the USSR Central Executive Committee 1922. Author of political and literary works, including a volume on literary criticism. Died in a plane crash near Tiflis.


MIKAYELIAN, KRISTAPOR (Akulis, Zangezur 1859 – Mount Vitosh, Bulgaria 1905) Orphaned at the age of 10. From 1870 to 1880 at the state teacher-training institute, Tiflis. Wrote and distributed leaflet protesting at state closure of Armenian schools in 1885. To Moscow in 1885; attended the Piotrovsky agricultural academy. There he met Simon Zavarian and Rostom. Joined the Narodnaya Volya. Returned to the Caucasus without completing his studies in 1887; taught in Akulis and Tiflis 1887–90. Founded the Young Armenia society in 1889; this led to the foundation by Mikayelian, Rostom


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and Zavarian of Dashnaktsutiun in 1890. Mikayelian was exiled to Kishinev in 1891, whence he escaped to Romania. There he edited the party paper Droshak. Again in the Caucasus in 1892–8. Jailed for 6 months in 1895. Organised the Krasnodar expedition, 1897. To Geneva to edit Droshak 1898. Instrumental in gaining support of French intellectuals to publish Pro-Armenia (from 1900). From 1901 led the Potorik ('Storm') movement, which extorted money from rich Armenians to aid the national movement. After the decision of the third Dashnak congress to assassinate Abdul Hamid, he undertook the task, and was killed by his own bomb on Mount Vitosh, Bulgaria, in 1905.


MIKOYAN, ANASTAS (Sanahin 1895 – Moscow 1978) Born to a peasant family. Educated at the Nersesian Academy, Tiflis, and the Gevorgian seminary, Echmiadzin. Engaged in political activity while at school. Joined the Bolshevik party in 1915. Enlisted in Gen. Andranik's Armenian volunteer regiment. To Baku in 1917, where he met Stepan Shahumian. Served on staff of Armenian-language newspaper Sotsial-Demokrat: also edited Izvestia. With Shahumian in the Baku commune; Bolshevik spokesman when the elder Bolsheviks were in gaol. Led the commissars through Baku as the Turks were entering it, 14–15 September 1918. To Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky), 1920; in the same year to Baku, after the Sovietisation of Azerbaijan. In Rostov-on-Don 1922–6, as secretary of the North Caucasus party organisation. Member of the Central Committee of the party from 1923. Commissar for foreign trade, 1926; commissar for supplies, 1930; commissar for food, 1934–8. Minister of foreign trade 1938–49; minister of trade 1953–5. Member of the Politburo of the party's Central Committee from 1935. Survived attempts by Beria to have him purged in the 1930s (and the intense suspicion of Stalin's latter days). Member of state defence committee, 1942. Opposed Malenkov over dismantlement of German industry in 1945; became vice-chairman of the council of ministers, 1946. The first to denounce Stalin in 1956. Visited the US, Mexico and Japan 1959–61. Played a central role in settling the Cuban missile crisis. Attended the funeral of President John F. Kennedy 1963. Chairman of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet, 1964–5; Memoirs published 1970. Retired from all public life in 1974.




MRAVIAN, ASKANAZ (Yelizavetpol (Gandsak) 1886–?1937) Educated at the Gevorgian seminary, Echmiadzin, and Yerevan diocesan school. Joined Yelizavetpol Social Democrats (Bolsheviks) in 1905. Sent to Armenia in July 1919 to establish a Communist organisation. Member of the Revkom which took power in Armenia in November 1920. Foreign minister of the Armenian SSR in May 1921. One of the signatories of the treaty of Kars. Minister of education, 1923. Liquidated during the purges; later rehabilitated.


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MURAD (Hampartsum Boyadjian) (Hadjin 1867 – Ayash 1915) Educated at his birthplace and at Constantinople, where he studied medicine. Further medical studies at Geneva. Joined the Hunchak party soon after its formation (1887). Active against the Ottoman government in the following year. The chief organiser of the Kum Kapu demonstration, July 1890. Escaped to Athens; thence to Transcaucasia. To Sasun in 1892 to encourage the people to resist the depredations of the Kurds. Again in Transcaucasia for much of 1893, returning to Khnus in the autumn. Leader of the Sasun revolt, 1894, after the arrest of Mihran Damadian. Murad was himself arrested and sentenced to death; foreign pressure commuted the sentence to life imprisonment. In Tripoli (Barbary) gaol for 12 years before escaping to France in 1904. To Egypt where, as a representative of the Hunchaks, he signed a document of reconciliation with Damadian (representing the Verakazmial Hunchaks), 24 November 1907. Thence to the USA. Returned to Constantinople after the Ottoman constitution of 1908; member of both the Armenian National Assembly and the Ottoman Parliament (deputy for Adana). Murdered during the 1915 genocide.


MURAD of SIVAS (Sivas province 1874 – Baku 1918) Born in a village in the province of Sivas. A fedayi leader in the 1904 Sasun rebellion; member of the Dashnak party. In Transcaucasia during the 1905 Armeno–Tatar conflict, fighting in Nakhichevan and Zangezur. Joined the Armenian volunteers on the outbreak of the first world war. At Erzindjan at the time of the Erzindjan truce (December 1917); became the actual leader as the Russian command ebbed. Fought the renewed Turkish offensive all the way east to Baku, being killed in the defence of that city on 5 August 1918.


MUSAYELIAN, SARGIS (1882 – Yerevan 1920) In the Russian army in 1914. Joined the Social Democrats (Bolsheviks). In Russia in 1917; transferred to Transcaucasia, first to Yelizavetpol (Gandsak) and then Baku. In Baku during the Commune. Joined the army of the Republic of Armenia in 1919; became head of the General Vardan armoured train group, while working underground for the revolution. Led the May 1920 rebellion from his armoured train at Alexandropol; proclaimed a Soviet regime in Armenia, with himself president and military commissar. Arrested on 15 May; shot on 14 August.


NALBANDIAN, MIKAYEL (Nor Nakhichevan 1829 – Kamyshin 1866) Early education until 1846 under the guidance of Kamar Katiba. Appointed secretary of the prelacy of the Armenian diocese of Bessarabia in 1848. In conflict with his employers over the traditional structure of Armenian society, he left for Moscow. Appointed as teacher of Armenian at the Lazarian Institute. His traditionalist opponents secured his dismissal, so he was forced to work as an auditor for the medical faculty of Moscow university. Became a close friend of Stepanos Nazariants; worked on the latter's Hiusisapayl (monthly, founded


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1858). Became ill in 1859; travelled to Constantinople and certain European cities (including London) to recover. Delegated by the Armenian community of Nor Nakhichevan to travel to Calcutta in 1860 to receive a sum of money willed to the community. Travelled again to Constantinople and in Europe in making preparations for his trip. In London he met Herzen and Bakunin. In Constantinople his radical ideas helped develop plans for the Zeitun uprising of 1862. On returning to Russia in 1862 he was arrested after the police had found an incriminating letter from Herzen on him. Imprisoned in the fortress of Petropavlovskaya 1862–5; transferred to Kamyshin under guard, where he died of tuberculosis, 31 March 1866. His body was transferred (in accordance with his wishes) to Nor Nakhichevan.


NAVASARDIAN, VAHAN (Shushi 1888 – Cairo 1956) A graduate in economics of St Petersburg university. Member of Dashnak party from youth. Briefly taught Russian, politics and economics at the Gevorgian seminary at Echmiadzin. Mayor of Alexandropol. Participated in the Karakilisa section of the battle of Sardarabad. Briefly editor of Dashnak organ Horizon (Tiflis) in late 1918. Settled in Yerevan in 1919; became a Member of Parliament. Fought in the Armeno–Kemalist war of September–November 1920. Active in the February 1921 revolt. After the Sovietisation of Armenia he eventually settled in Egypt, where he remained a leading (and hard-line) member of the Dashnak Bureau. Editor of Housaper. Took an uncompromising attitude towards non-Dashnak Armenians. Author of Bolshevizme yev Dashnaktsutiune (Cairo, 1949), etc.


NAZARBEKIAN, AVETIS (1866–1936) Published poetry under pen name of Avo Lerentz in 1883. Initially a collaborator with Portugalian, writing in his journal Armenia. Broke with him on the issue of revolution, founding the Hunchak party with six fellow students in Geneva in August 1887. Friend of Plekhanov and Vera Zasulich. Edited Hunchak. In London 1892–3, as organiser of the party branch there; travelled extensively to Paris, Athens and Geneva. Back in London for the first general congress of the Hunchak party, 18 September 1896, held in Frithville Gardens, Shepherds Bush. Disagreed with Plekhanov, Lenin and Martov on the Armenian situation, the Russians holding that the issues of Russian and Turkish Armenia should be separated. An attempt on Nazarbekian's life by a Verakazmial Hunchak failed in October 1903. Split developed between him and fellow Hunchak Sabah-Gulian, over relations with the Social Democratic movement; the party congress of 1905 (in Paris) sided against Nazarbekian, who had sought virtually to dissolve the party's identity. The same conflict emerged at the 8th party congress, Athens, 1924; he was elected vice-chairman of the party committee, but his views were criticised.


NAZARBEKIAN, General TOVMAS (Foma I. Nazarbekov) (Tiflis 1855 – Tiflis 1931) Born to a wealthy Russianised family. Attended the


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military academy in Moscow. Participated in the Russo–Turkish war of 1877–8, and in the Russo–Japanese war of 1904–5, in which he was decorated with the Cross and the Sabre of St George. Resigned his commission when tsarist policy turned against the Armenians; but returned to the army when Russia abandoned her anti-Armenian stance. Appointed a general on the Caucasian front in 1914; scored great victory over Khalil Pasha at Diliman (not mentioned in Allen and Muratoff, Caucasian Battlefields). Occupied Bitlis. Commissioned to lead the Armenian corps, December 1917. Ordered by Chkhenkeli to abandon Kars, 23–4 April 1918. Driven back to Dilidjan during the battle of Sardarabad. Commander-in-chief of Armenian army after the republic's independence; found establishment of discipline impossible, with abolition of death penalty (May 1917). Held that this led to demoralisation which lost Kars. Arrested in January 1921 after the Sovietisation of Armenia, along with 1,200 other officers. Amnestied in May 1921. Settled in Tiflis; lived quietly for the last ten years of his life.


NAZARIANTS, STEPANOS (Tiflis 1812 – Moscow 1879) Educated first at the Nersesian academy, then at the school and university of Dorpat (Tartu, Estonia). Lecturer in oriental studies at Kazan university in 1843. Lecturer in Arabic, Persian and Latin at the Lazarian Institute in 1849. Published a work in classical Armenian in 1851, and in the vernacular in 1853. Edited and published Hiusisapayl ('Aurora borealis') 1858–64, advocating progressive ideas and the use of the vernacular, for which he was opposed by clerical circles. (Not interested in Turkish Armenia.) Became headmaster of the Nersesian Academy, Tiflis; returned to the Lazarian Institute.


NERSES V, Catholicos (Nerses Ashtaraketsi) (Ashtarak 1770 – Echmiadzin 1857) Showed a reforming spirit soon after his ordination. Consecrated bishop in 1809; soon recognised as a man of great authority. Appointed prelate of the Armenians of Tiflis in 1814. Established the Nersesian Academy in Tiflis in 1816. Led the contingent of Armenian volunteers against the Persians in July 1827. One of the executive of three men appointed to administer Yerevan and Nakhichevan after their conquest by the Russians. Manoeuvred out of his influential position by Prince Paskievich, who had him appointed primate of the Armenians of Bessarabia (1828–43). Elected Catholicos of all Armenians in 1843. Improved the school, printing press and environment of Echmiadzin (he built Echmiadzin lake). Known by the people as pashtpan hayreniats ('defender of the fatherland'). Tried without success to modify polozhenye. Came into conflict with Khachatur Abovian and other intellectuals, and towards the end of his life grew somewhat autocratic. Died while writing a letter to the Russian minister of the interior.


NERSES, Patriarch (Varzhabedian) (Khaskugh (Hasköy), Constantinople 1837 – Constantinople 1884) Left school at 15 on the death of his father.


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Taught at a local school, 1853; at a school in Adrianople in 1885. Became a celibate priest in 1858; shortly afterwards a vardapet. Participated in the drawing up of the Armenian national constitution. Consecrated bishop on 1862 by the Catholicos of Cilicia. Visited Echmiadzin on ecclesiastical business in 1866. Elected Patriarch of Constantinople 3 November 1873 (at the age of 37), despite his wish not to stand as a candidate since he suffered from diabetes. Settled problems of jurisdiction of Aghtamar catholicosate, but not those of the Cilician see. Issued encyclical instructing Ottoman Armenians to support Ottoman war effort on outbreak of Russo–Turkish war, 1877; on hearing of atrocities committed on Armenian villagers, travelled to San Stefano to present requests for security to Grand Duke Michael. Despatched an Armenian delegation to Berlin, which returned unheard. Active in establishment of schools. Asked to resign, on health grounds, but resignation not accepted. Elected Catholicos of all Armenians in May 1884; declined on health grounds. Resigned as patriarch 11 days before his death, 26 October 1884.




NORADOUNGIAN, GABRIEL (Constantinople 1852 – Paris 1936) Born to a family from Agn (or Eghin). After local schooling, he studied international law in Europe. Returning to Constantinople, he took an active part in the Armenian National Assembly; also served the Porte as legal adviser. Published a Recueil d'actes internationaux de l'empire Ottoman (4 vols., Paris, 1897–1903). After the constitutional revolution of 1908 he became minister of public works. Briefly Ottoman foreign minister in 1912 in the 'father-and-son' Cabinet of Ghazi Ahmad Mukhtar; forced to resign on outbreak of Balkan war. During and after the world war in Paris, as a member of the Armenian National Delegation. To the USA in 1921 on an inquiry mission; met President Harding. Returned to Europe to work in Armenian National Delegation attempting with Avetis Aharonian, without success, to influence the treaty of Lausanne. Vice-president, then honorary president, of the Armenian General Benevolent Union then centred in Paris.


NURIJANIAN, AVIS (Vachakan, Karabagh 1896–1937) Orphaned at the age of 3. Educated at local diocesan school and at Shushi. Higher education in economics faculty of Kiev trade institute. To the Caucasian front in 1914. Joined the Dashnak party in 1917, but soon quit it. In defence of the Baku commune, April–August 1918; became secretary of the commune. Joined the Bolsheviks in September 1918; responsible for underground activities. Jailed by Musavatist Azerbaijan for two months in 1919; expelled from the country. Given refuge by Dashnak Armenia; settled in Alexandropol. Secretary, from January 1920, of the illegal Armenkom. A leader of the May uprising; commissar for foreign affairs of the military-revolutionary committee which seized power in Alexandropol. Escaped when the rebellion was crushed. Military


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commissar when the Revkom, headed by Kasian, entered Armenia in December 1920. Instigated a savage reign of terror which led directly to the uprising of February 1921. Expelled from Armenia when Miasnikian entered Armenia. To Petrograd to study in 1923. On party work in Petrograd, Ryazan and Transcaucasia. A victim of the purges.


NZHDEH, General GAREGIN (G. Ter-Harutiunian) (Nakhichevan 1886 – Siberia 1957) Joined the Dashnak party in his teens. Enrolled in a military academy in Sofia (Bulgaria) in 1905, at age of 19; graduated in 1907. Returned to Transcaucasia; imprisoned by tsarist authorities; escaped from jail in 1911 and sought refuge in Bulgaria. Joined Gen. Andranik's brigade fighting in the 1912 Balkan war; served as a second lieutenant. Later given command of a Bulgarian brigade. To Transcaucasia in 1914; joined the Armenian volunteers. For two years adjutant to General Dro. Commander of the 3rd volunteer battalion. Fought with Gen. Nazarbekian at Karakilisa in the battle of Sardarabad, May 1918. One of the organisers of the republic's army after independence. Appointed commander to suppress Tatar rebellion in Goghtan (Nakhichevan), autumn 1919. Commander in Karabagh and Zangezur in 1920. Fought Bolshevik and Tatar forces almost continuously from July 1920 to July 1921; commander-in-chief of Lernahayastan (Zangezur) April–July 1921. Crossed into Persia; thence to Bulgaria. Member of Dashnak Central Committee of Bulgaria. Invited by the US Central Committee to go to America as a field-worker in 1933. Formed Dashnak youth societies into H.H.D. Tseghakronner (= A.R.F. Race-devotees); name soon changed to Armenian Youth Federation of America. Expelled from Dashnak party for extreme views, though Dashnak papers continued to print his articles. To Berlin in 1942; member of the 'Armenian National Council'. With Dro in the Crimea and North Caucasus. To Bulgaria in 1944. Sent to Siberia on capture by the Russians. Nzhdeh means 'exile'.


ODIAN, KRIKOR (Constantinople 1834 – Paris 1887) Trained as a lawyer. Rose within the Ottoman civil service. One of the architects of the Armenian national constitution, 1863. Assisted Midhat Pasha in the preparation of the Ottoman constitution, 1876. To London in January 1877 as Ottoman government emissary, seeking to oppose the proposals of the Constantinople conference; proposed instead that the execution of the Ottoman constitution should be a matter of international obligation. After the suspension of the constitution and the fall of Midhat, left for Paris, where he died 9 years later.


OHANDJANIAN, HAMAZASP (HAMO) (Akhalkalak 1873 – Cairo 1947) Elementary schooling locally; sent to Russian school in Tiflis in 1883. Thence to Moscow, to study medicine. Participated in revolutionary activities; sent back to Tiflis as a result. To Lausanne for further medical studies, 1899–1902. Returned to Transcaucasia to practice medicine, mainly in Baku; became a


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member of the eastern Bureau of Dashnaktsutiun in 1905. Co-ordinated relations with Russian and Georgian revolutionaries during Armeno–Tatar conflict. To Vienna for 4th congress of Dashnaktsutiun, 1907. Caught up in tsarist persecution of Dashnaks; sent to Novocherkask in 1909. Chief defendant at the trial of Dashnaktsutiun, 1912; exiled to Siberia in 1913. Married Rupina, fellow Armenian revolutionary, while in exile. Returned to Transcaucasia in 1915; in Van to give medical assistance in May. Commissar for public welfare in Transcaucasian Commissariat, November 1917; in same month chosen by Dashnaktsutiun to be one of its representatives at Constituent Assembly (Petrograd). Delegated to seek German mediation between Armenia and the Turks, May 1918. To Berlin in June as quasi-ambassador, seeking recognition and protection for Armenia. To Geneva in November. Member of Armenian republic's delegation at Paris peace conference. To Berne to put Armenian case to Second International, February 1919. To Armenia; appointed foreign minister in Khatisian's Cabinet, January 1920. Took over premiership after May 1920 Communist uprising; his administration saw fierce conflicts with the Communists. Resigned after the fall of Kars. Jailed after the Sovietisation of Armenia; released by February rebellion. To Persia after the return of the Communists, thence to Egypt. A leading member of the Dashnak Bureau until his death. Opposed Gen. Dro's activities during the second world war. Known as Mher.


ORMANIAN, Patriarch MAGHAKIA (Constantinople 1841 – Constantinople 1918) Born to an Armenian Catholic family. Sent to Rome in 1851; ordained priest in 1863. Served as Armenian teacher to the De Propaganda Fide congregation until 1866, when he returned to Constantinople via San Lazzaro, Venice. To Rome again in 1868 to take a degree; elected a member of the Rome theological academy. Took part in the Vatican Council of 1870. Met Garibaldi in 1875. Converted to the Armenian Apostolic (Lousavorchakan) Church in 1879, with 75 others at a ceremony celebrated by Patriarch Nerses Varzhabedian. Appointed primate of the Armenians of Erzerum in 1880; succeeded in reducing local tensions after the Erzerum demonstration of 1882. Consecrated bishop in 1886 at Echmiadzin, where he became professor of theology in 1887. Forced to quit by government pressure in 1888; returned to Constantinople. Dean of the seminary at Armash (near Ismit) from 1890; under him it became a critical academic institution. Elected Armenian patriarch of Constantinople on resignation of Patriarch Mateos Izmirlian in 1896; very unpopular with radical and revolutionary Armenians, who saw him as the sultan's yes-man. Prevailed upon the sultan to release many Armenian prisoners. Tendered his resignation to the palace in 1899, but the sultan would not accept it. Compelled to resign six days after the constitutional revolution of 1908; denounced by Armenian National Assembly in November; physically humiliated; suffered a partial stroke as a result. In 1913 declared innocent of the accusations. To Jerusalem in 1914 on ecclesiastical business; deported to


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Damascus in 1917. To Constantinople in May 1918; died there in November. Most famous for his Azgapatum ('History of the Nation') (3 vols., Constantinople and Jerusalem, 1913–27).




PAPADJANIAN, Marshal HAMAZASP (Chartakhlu, Azerbaijan 1908–77) Admitted to the A. Miasnikian military school, Yerevan, in 1925. Then to the Frunze military academy, Moscow. Commander in the Russo–Finnish war, 1939–40. After German invasion of Russia, he was one of the defenders of Moscow; later crossed the Dneistre river; wounded. Took part in the liberation of Poland, then of Germany (entering Berlin). Promoted to major-general. In 1968 he was appointed marshal of tank forces.


PAPADJANIAN, MIKAYEL (Yerevan 1868 – Tiflis 1929) Grandfather had served in the Russian army. Educated at state gymnasium. Studied law at Rostov, Odessa and St Petersburg, graduating in 1892. Practised as a barrister at Baku. Active against the authorities during the events of 1903–5. Married an oil heiress in 1907. Elected Armenian member of the Fourth State Duma in 1912. Supported P. Miliukov and Kadets. One of the five members of the Ozakom, March 1917. Founder member of the Zhoghovrdakan (Populist) party, 1917, the eastern equivalent of the Ramkavars. Participated in the Russian Armenian National Congress, October 1917; he and the other members of the Ozakom were criticised for ineffectiveness. Negotiated at Batum with Vehib Pasha and Khalil Bey, May–June 1918; signed Batum treaty. To Paris in 1918 as a member of the delegation of the Republic of Armenia. To Moscow in 1923 to discuss matters of Armenian immigration. Joined Ramkavar Azatakan party after its foundation; elected to its Central Committee; also member of central executive of AGBU, Paris. In 1929 delegated by his party to discuss with Soviet Armenian government the re-establishment of ties between Eastern and Western Armenians. Died on his way out, in Tiflis.


PAPAZIAN, VAHAN (Koms) (Tabriz 1876 – Beirut 1973) Parents came from Van. Father killed in Salmas when he was 9. To Nor Nakhichevan in 1893. First contact with Armenian revolutionaries – initially Hunchaks – in 1895; met Dashnaks in the same year at Alexandropol, and joined the party. Returned to Nor Nakhichevan in 1896; to Baku in 1897, and on to Moscow university. Not a success, so he returned to Transcaucasia, settling in Alexandropol. Decided to return to studies, so he enrolled at St Petersburg university. There (with Nikol Aghbalian) 1900–2; compelled to flee to Finland when suspected of implication in assassination of wealthy Armenian. Thence to Geneva, until 1903, when he returned to Transcaucasia; on to Van, where he remained until 1908, directing Dashnak revolutionary activity. After the


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proclamation of the Ottoman constitution in 1908 he was elected deputy for Van. Participated in Tiflis meeting of September 1912 which, in the wake of Armenian disillusion with the Young Turks, decided to reactivate the Armenian question. To Paris in 1913 to confer with Boghos Nubar Pasha. Returned to the Van region in August 1914, to look after the interests of people there. Helped reduce tension in local dispute in February 1915. Fled with Ruben Ter-Minasian to Yerevan to join the Armenian volunteers; his abandonment of the Armenians of Moush and Sasun has been heavily criticised. Chairman of the council of the Western Armenian Congress, May 1917. To Tiflis 1918; to Paris in 1919 to participate in the Armenian delegation at the peace conference. Returned to Yerevan October 1919 to take part in the 9th general congress of Dashnaktsutiun. Returned to France in September 1920 for further peace talks. To Riga in July 1921 with Djamalian and Navasardian for the (fruitless) talks with the Communists. Again with the Delegation of the Republic of Armenia in trying to influence the Lausanne treaty. Assisted establishment of Kurdish Khoybun, 1927. In Berlin during the second world war, as a member of the 'Armenian National Council'. Thereafter in Beirut; member of the Central Committee of Hamazkayin (1947–8); president of the organisation (1951–3). Candidate in Lebanese parliamentary elections of 1951; lost. His brother VRTANES was a well-regarded writer who lived (and died) in Soviet Armenia.


PARAMAZ (Karabagh – Constantinople 1915) Leading Hunchak. Participated in the Van defence, June 1896. Active in Transcaucasia in the conflict of 1903–5, in part playing a conciliatory role. One of the organisers of the attempt on Golitsyn's life. Several times imprisoned by the autocracy. Leading participant in the Constantsa (Köstendje) Hunchak convention, 1915, which demanded the overthrow of the Ottoman empire. Returned to Constantinople; arrested; hanged, after a long trial, in Bayazid Square, June 1915.




PASHALIAN, LEVON (Scutari, Constantinople 1869 – Vichy 1943) Attended the Berberian school, Constantinople. Journalist and critic; began writing in 1884. Wrote for Arevik, Masis and Hairenik (all of Constantinople). Joined the Hunchak party soon after its foundation (1887). Escaped the Hamidian crack-down by fleeing to Paris, August 1890. Returned to Constantinople after 2–3 years; worked with Arpiar Arpiarian on Hairenik. Fled with Arpiarian to London after the Bab Ali demonstration (1895); together they founded Mart ('Battle') and Nor Giank ('New Life'). Abandoned the socialism of Nazarbekian; one of the founders of the non-socialist Verakazmial ('reformed') Hunchaks. In Baku 1901–20 as director of a French oil company; gave up writing, seeming to lose interest in political and literary matters. To Paris in 1920; in 1922 a member of the Armenian delegation


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seeking to influence the Lausanne treaty. Executive secretary of the Central Council for Armenian Refugees from 1923. Member of the central board of AGBU. To Yerevan in 1924 to investigate viability of League of Nations plan for settling 50,000 Armenian refugees on irrigated Sardarabad desert. Sought relief for victims of 1929–30 deportations. Editor of Le Foyer, 1928–34.






PORTUGALIAN, MKRTICH (Kum Kapu, Constantinople 1848 – Marseilles 1921) Educated in the Ottoman capital; aware from an early age of the conflict between progress and stagnation in the Armenian community. Became a teacher in Tokat in 1867; arrested in 1869 by the Ottoman authorities on the instigation of conservative Armenians for his progressive educational activities. Released; returned to Constantinople. Edited Asia; forced to close by opposition. Contributed to Turkish-language Manzume; also to Meghu Hayastani ('Armenian Bee') of Tiflis. Founded the Araratian Society in 1876, seeking to further Armenian education in the provinces; became director in Van (in the same year), whither he travelled, visiting the villages of the district en route. To Tiflis in 1877, to confer with Grigor Artsruni; back to Van, via Constantinople, in 1878. Founded a school open to all; forced to close by factionalism. To Constantinople briefly again in 1881, before founding another school in Van, the Kedronakan Varzharan. Banished by the government in March 1885; the school closed in June. To exile in Marseilles, where through the journal Armenia he acted as the guiding spirit of the Armenakan party (the first Armenian political party). His later plans for a united Armenian front were nullified by the emergence of the revolutionary parties.


RAFFI (Hakob Melik-Hakobian) (Bayajuk, near Salmas, Persia 1835 – Tiflis 1888) After elementary education locally, to Tiflis in 1847 for further schooling. Forced to discontinue in 1855. Travelled to Turkish Armenia in 1857 – Moush, Van (where he met Khrimian Hayrik at the Varak monastery). Began writing seriously in 1860; contributed to Hiusisapayl ('Northern Lights', Moscow). To Tiflis in 1868; destitute from business failures. Joined the staff of Mshak ('Labourer', Tiflis) on invitation from Grigor Artsruni in 1872. To Tabriz to teach in 1874; forced to quit in 1877 when suspected of agitation. Novels included Jellaledin, Khente ('The Fool'), Kaitzer ('Sparks'), Davit Bek, Samuel, all of nationalist significance. Died from lung trouble.


ROSTOM (Stepan Zorian) (Tsghna, 1867 – Tiflis 1919) Educated at Tiflis state school. To the Petrovsk agricultural academy, Moscow, in 1889; expelled after a year for taking part in a demonstration. With Mikayelian and Zavarian founded Dashnaktsutiun in summer 1890. Taught in Tabriz, 1891–2. Worked


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on the party platform with the other founders in 1892. In Geneva working on Droshak ('Flag') 1893–5. To Erzerum in 1895; arrested and expelled to Persia. To Tiflis; thence to the Balkans to work with Macedonian revolutionaries. Back to Transcaucasia in 1902; active against Russian confiscations and in the Armeno–Tatar conflict, 1905. Persuaded the 4th Dashnak congress, Vienna, 1907, to approve his participation in the Persian constitutional movement. Briefly in Stuttgart, and Bulgaria, before returning to the Caucasus, and on to Persia to take an active part in the fight for the Persian constitution. To Varna for the 5th Dashnak congress. On to Constantinople and Erzerum, where he remained as a party worker until 1914. One of the Dashnak leaders who discussed policy in the event of war with the Young Turk leaders at the Erzerum (8th) congress. To Transcaucasia on the outbreak of war; assisted in organisation of volunteer units and of relief for refugees. Warned of the danger of revolution in wartime when the tsar abdicated. One of nine Dashnak representatives chosen as deputies to the all-Russian Constituent Assembly. To Stockholm to present the Armenian case to the Socialist International. In Baku in 1918, fighting the Turkish invasion. On to Persia, then to Tiflis, where he died.


SABAH-GULIAN, STEPAN (Djahri, a village just north of Nakhichevan, 1861 – USA 1928) Attended the Nersesian academy, Tiflis. Appointed director of Nakhichevan schools; met Paramaz, with whom he discussed revolutionary ideas. Briefly in Jerusalem, as a director of the Armenian school. To Paris for further education; graduated from the École libre des sciences politiques with Raymond Poincaré. Became a leader of the Hunchak party. Founded and edited a number of journals, including Yeritasard Hayastan ('Armenian Youth', 1903), Hunchak, Veradsnound ('Revival'), Nor Ashakharh. An attempt on his life by the Verakazmial Hunchaks failed in 1903. After the Ottoman constitution he declared his opposition to the Committee of Union and Progress. Condemned to death (in absentia) along with other Hunchaks in 1915. At the time he was in Cairo. Thence he travelled to the USA to recruit for the volunteer units and to obtain assistance for the Armenians in the war. Edited Yeritasard Hayastan in new York. Opposed the idea of an American mandate for Armenia, favouring Bolshevik Russia. Disagreed with Nazarbekian on relations between Hunchaks and Social Democrats; showed determination to maintain independence and integrity of Hunchak party.


SAFARIAN, Major-General NEVER (Ardjish, Van province, 1907–) Father a victim of the 1915 genocide. Family moved to Echmiadzin in 1915. Orphaned in 1917. To Yerevan to study in the A. Miasnikian military academy in 1923; graduated in 1927. Further military education at the Frunze academy, Moscow. Chief of staff in the western Ukraine when Nazis invaded in 1941; in February 1943 appointed commander of the 89th Armenian division fighting at Novorosiisk and Taman. His forces liberated Taman; known as the


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Tamanian army. Also fought at Kerch and Sevastopol. Promoted to general. After the liberation of the Crimea his troops fought in Poland, at Frankfurt-ander-Oder and Berlin.


SAHAK II, Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia (Yeghek, village in Kharput province, 1849 – Antilias 1939) Baptismal name Gabriel Khapayan. Taken by his parents to the seminary of the Armenian monastery at Jerusalem in 1867. To Constantinople in 1869; again to Jerusalem in 1872 as teacher, then as editor of the journal of the patriarchate, Sion (1874–7). Ordained celibate priest in 1877. In 1879 he undertook a tour of Kharput, Aleppo, Aintab, Erzindjan, Trebizond and Constantinople on the business of the patriarchate. In Transcaucasia 1881–6 raising funds for the patriarchate. Consecrated bishop in 1885 at Echmiadzin. Returned to Jerusalem as chamberlain of the patriarchate in 1886. Appointed representative of the patriarchate to the Cilician catholicosate in 1900. Elected Catholicos of Cilicia at Sis on 12 October 1902; mentioned name of Catholicos Mkrtich (Khrimian) of Echmiadzin during the service of consecration, thereby signifying reconciliation with mother see. Visited Constantinople in 1904, trying (unsuccessfully) to solve problems of jurisdiction of the Cilician catholicosate and Constantinople patriarchate; problem remained unsolved. Protested at the Adana massacre of 1909. Informed Patriarch Zaven of Constantinople of rumours of deportations on 2 March 1915. Strongly protested on 13 June 1915 to Djemal Pasha about the condition of Armenian deportees, and of the Armenian soldiers in labour battalions. On 21 October 1915 compelled on instructions from the ministry of the interior to leave, first for Aleppo then for Jerusalem. In May 1916 ordered by Djemal Pasha to assume, after the abolition of the sees of Sis, Aghtamar, Constantinople and Jerusalem, the new post of Catholicos-patriarch of all Armenians in the Ottoman empire, based at Jerusalem. Reluctantly accepted, thereby hoping to end the government's persecution of Armenians. Exiled by the government to Damascus in November 1917. Returned to Cilicia after the armistice of 1918. Forced to flee again with the rise of the Kemalist movement, quitting Adana in December 1921. After remaining a short while in Aleppo, he settled in Antilias, north of Beirut, in 1931, making it the seat of the catholicosate. Took over responsibility for dioceses of Beirut, Damascus and Latakia in 1929, hitherto the responsibility of the patriarchate of Jerusalem.


SASUNI, KARO (Aharonk, Sasun, 1889 – Beirut 1977) Attended Mkhitarist intermediate school of Moush 1900–6. Joined the secret youth group of the Dashnak party in 1904. Taught in Diyarbekir 1906–9. To the law school of Constantinople in 1909. Sent by the Dashnak Bureau of Constantinople to Moush and Sasun in 1912. Graduated from the Constantinople law school. To Transcaucasia in October 1914, to assist in organisation of the Armenian volunteer units. Sent as an activist to the border region of Pasen (between


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Erzerum and Sarikamish). To Moush and Sasun in 1916, as leader and military adviser. To Constantinople and Smyrna in January 1919, where he worked in collaboration with Ramkavar leader Suren Partevian. To the Republic of Armenia in June 1919, where he was elected a deputy in the Parliament; also governor in the Alexandropol region. After the anti-Communist rebellion of 18 February 1921 he acted as minister of the interior in the Committee for the Salvation of the Fatherland. After the return of the Communists he was in Paris for 10 years, before settling finally in Beirut. There he continued as a leader of the Dashnak party, and became a respected elder statesman of the community. Of his published works Kiurt azgayin sharzhumnere yev Hai-Krtakan haraberutiunnere (The Kurdish National Movements and Armeno-Kurdish Relations (1932, rev. edn. 1968)) is especially to be noted. Visited Soviet Armenia in the 1970s.




SEPOUH (Arshak Nersesian) (Tomna, village north of Baiburt, 1872 – USA 1940) Showed early aptitude as craftsman. Educated Trebizond. Left for Constantinople in 1889; joined the Hunchak party. On party orders assassinated an Armenian working for the Turks. Took part in the Kum Kapu Affray. To the Crimea; thence to Yalta and Sevastopol. Joined the Dashnak party in 1894. Moved on to Tiflis and Yerevan. Active in the Sasun uprising of 1904; led the Mrrik ('Storm') group helping the peasants against the government. Took part in battles at Tabek, Shenik and Semal; wounded. Thence to Tadvan, Aghtamar Island and Van. Participated in the 1907 Dashnak party congress at Vienna. To Ashkale in 1912; thence to Erzerum, Tiflis and Kharkov. To Tiflis on the outbreak of the first world war; assumed leadership of a force of 500 volunteers which was sent to Salmas, Persia. To Tiflis again in 1915; then to the front once more, to Khoy and Diliman. With the Russian forces in their advance to Erzerum in 1917. In the Baku commune under Shahumian in 1918. To Petrovsk and then to Armenia (via Batum), where he was elected to the Parliament in 1919. Appointed commander of the special division created to crush the Bolshevik uprising of May 1920. After the Sovietisation of Armenia he left for the USA via Constantinople, where he died. His sons joined Nzhdeh's Tseghakrons.


SEROP (S. Vardanian; known as Aghbur Serop) (Sokhort, a village near Akhlat, c. 1865 – Moush 1900) In Romania in the 1890s; joined the ranks of the Dashnaks in 1893. A revolutionary guerrilla in the Akhlat region from 1895. (His wife Sosse was also a revolutionary.) Extended his revolutionary activities westward throughout the Moush and Sasun region, establishing a quasi-autonomy in the area. Poisoned by an Armenian traitor in the pay of Kurdish chieftain Bshara Khalil.


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SHAHAMIRIAN, HAKOB (b. Madras 1745) The son of the following. A pupil of Movses Baghramian. Published (allegedly) Vorogait Parats ('Trap of Glory') in 1773, a manual for the constitution of a future Armenia, which he envisaged as a democracy.


SHAHAMIRIAN, SHAHAMIR Born madras. Initially a tailor, then a jeweller, whereby he became very rich. With Movses Baghramian and Hovsep Emin turned his attention to Armenia, initiating political discussion. In correspondence with King Erekle (Heraclius) II of Georgia. Shahamirian favoured a republic for Armenia, with strong ties to Russia.


SHAHAN NATALI (Hakob Ter-Hakobian) (Husseinik, near Kharput, 1884–) His father was killed in the massacre of 1895. To S. Hagop orphanage, Constantinople, in 1897; adopted. Educated at the Berberian school. Back in Husseinik as a teacher 1901–4. Joined Dashnak party in 1904. To the USA in 1904; worked in a shoe factory. Returned briefly to Constantinople in 1908 after the constitutional revolution; sceptical about its effectiveness; to USA again in 1909. At Boston university 1910–12, studying literature and philosophy. Homesick, planned to return to Husseinik in 1912; arrested in Greece as an Ottoman citizen. Again to America. Edited Hairenik (Boston) 1915–17 and 1919. Chosen as US delegate to 9th general congress of Dashnaktsutiun, Yerevan, autumn 1919. Leader of Nemesis organisation which tracked down and assassinated Turkish war criminals. Became member of the Dashnak Bureau. Travelled widely in Europe. Left the Dashnak party in 1929; formed in 1933 the Western Armenian Liberation Alliance. Back in the USA, he became a member of AGBU, and was for 10 years secretary of the New England chapter. Visited Soviet Armenia in 1960 and 1962. Lives in retirement in Watertown. Author of several books, including Turkism from Angora to Baku, and the Turkish Orientation (Athens, 1928) and From the Treaty of Alexandropol to the Caucasian Rebellions of the 1930s (Athens, 1933); also of a number of volumes of poetry.




SHAHUMIAN, STEPAN (Tiflis 1878 – desert near Ashkhabad 1918) In the revolutionary movement from 1898. Began a Marxist study group in Lori in 1899. Social Democrat from 1900. To Riga Polytechnic Institute in 1900; expelled for revolutionary activity. Formed (with Hunchaks and Left Dashnaks) the Union of Armenian Social Democrats in 1902. Co-founder of Proletariat (Tiflis) in same year. To Germany also in 1902; worked with RSDRP members. Member of the Caucasian joint RSDRP committee on his return in 1904. Founded and edited a number of Bolshevik newspapers; wrote on philosophy, literature and art besides politics and economics. Delegate to the fourth and fifth RSDRP congress. Active in party work. Took part in


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preparation of Prague RSDRP congress of 1911; arrested; exiled to Astrakhan. Elected member of the Central Committee of the Social Democrats in his absence. Returned to Baku in spring 1914. Directed oil-workers' strike May–July 1914. Arrested again in 1916 and exiled to Saratov. Released March 1917. Elected chairman of the Baku Soviet in absentia 6 March 1917, returned two days later. To Petrograd in June 1917, at all-Russian Congress of Soviets. Appointed extraordinary commissar for Caucasian affairs in December 1917. In Tiflis January–February 1918; attacked Transcaucasian Seim; Commissariat ordered his arrest; he escaped to Baku. In close contact with Dashnaktsutiun March–July 1918. His power strengthened by the 'March Days', which meant the submission of the Musavat party. Leader of the Baku commune after establishment of Soviet rule, 25 April 1918. Despite his awareness that the revolution was unfinished, he brought about an extensive social and economic transformation of the city. Resigned after vote to let the British in, 25 July 1918. Shahumian and the other commissars left Baku openly on 14 August; forced by a storm on to Zhil island. Sighted and arrested the next morning; returned to Baku. Saved from the invading Turks by Mikoyan, who led them to the port. Taken by ship to Krasnovodsk; jailed by anti-Bolshevik committee based at Ashkhabad. Decision taken to kill them on 18 September; all 26 murdered on 20 September.


SHANT, LEVON (L. Seghposian) (Constantinople 1869 – Beirut 1951) Attended Armenian school at Scutari (Uskudar) until 1883, then to the Gevorgian seminary at Echmiadzin until 1891. Returned to Constantinople to teach and write; his first literary work accepted by Hairenik of Constantinople in that year. To Germany in 1892 for seven years to study science, child psychology, education, literature and history: Leipzig, Jena and Munich. Returned to settle in Constantinople. Joined the Dashnak party. Worked as a writer and teacher. As an author most renowned for his plays: Hin Astvadsner ('Ancient Gods', 1909), Kaisre ('The Emperor', 1914), Inkads Berdi Ishkhanuhin ('The Princess of the Fallen Castle', 1921), Oshin Payl (1929). One of the vice-presidents of the Armenian Parliament during the Republic. Led the Armenian delegation to Moscow in April 1920 to negotiate with the Communists. Left Armenia after its Sovietisation, eventually settling in Beirut. One of the founders of the Hamazkayin cultural association. Principal of the Nshan Palandjian Djemaran (College), Beirut, from 1929 until his death. His works were published in Soviet Armenia in 1968.


SHIRVANZADE (Agheksandr Movsesian) (Shemakha 1858 – Yerevan 1935) Born in Shirvan province, hence his pen-name. His father went bankrupt in his childhood, and the family house was wrecked by an earthquake in 1872, events which strongly influenced him. Educated partly at the Protestant school of Shemakha, and at an independent one. To Baku in 1875, first as a local government official, then in an oil company. There he encountered the


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Armenian language and literature. Began writing in 1880, first in Russian, then in Armenian (in Mshak). Moved to Tiflis, where his writings included the plays Namus ('Honour', 1885) and Kaos ('Chaos', 1896–7). Briefly assistant editor of Ardzagang ('Echo'). Worked in city administration of Tiflis 1889–92; sacked for writing during office hours. Joined the Hunchak party; toured some Russian cities as a political educator. Jailed for three months in 1895. Left the party; exiled to Odessa for political offences nevertheless in 1898 on orders of the tsar. On his return he left to settle in Paris (August 1905). Back to the Caucasus in 1910. To the USA in 1918. Again to Paris in 1922, then to Soviet Armenia, where he died. His complete works published in Yerevan 1930–4.




SHMAVONIAN, HARUTIUN (Shiraz 1750 – Madras 1824) Ordained a kahana (married priest). Appointed to the diocese of Madras. Established a printing press in 1789. Influenced by the publication of an English newspaper, published the first Armenian paper, Azdarar ('Monitor'), 16 October 1794. Financial difficulties forced it to close in February 1796.


SIAMANTO (Atom Yardjanian) (Agn (Egin) 1878 – Ayash 1915) To Constantinople in 1892, to study at the Berberian school. Joined the Dashnak party. In Europe 1896–1908; wrote for Droshak in Geneva, and studied literature for 3 years at the Sorbonne. Returned briefly to Constantinople after the constitution of 1908; on to the USA as a party worker and editor of Hairenik daily (Boston). Wrote his first book there. Returned to Constantinople in 1910. Wrote heavily symbolist poetry, and also more direct and stirring lyrics celebrating the activities of Armenian fedayis. Arrested on 24 April 1915; murdered in the course of the genocide.


SMBAT (S. Baroyan) (Moush 1882 – Yerevan 1955) Early engagement in guerrilla activity against Turks. Became a Dashnak fedayi, joined the Vardanantz group when aged 15. Served under Andranik at Arakelotz Vank and in the 1904 Sasun rebellion. Then to Persia with Andranik and Kaidsak Arakel; fought at Urmia and Khoy. In Transcaucasia during the 1905 Armeno-Tatar wars; fought under Nikol Duman at Yerevan and Kamarlu (modern Artashat). Returned to Moush after the constitutional revolution of 1908. A member of Andranik's troops in 1914; took part in the battle of Diliman (Shahpur), April 1915. Wounded; transferred to Tiflis. His wife was killed by the Turks. To Moush and Sasun in 1916, with Andranik and Dro, and Russian support, to save the survivors of the massacres. Returned to Igdir and Yerevan. During the republic served under Ruben Ter-Minasian, fighting Tatar insurgency around Kars and Mount Akbaba. Imprisoned after Armenia's Sovietisation; released by February rebellion. Continued to fight in Zangezur after the Bolsheviks had retaken Yerevan. Escaped to Tabriz.


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Remarried. Simon Vratsian arranged for him to go first to the USA and then to France (Marseilles). Repatriated to Soviet Armenia in 1947. Died in Yerevan; buried at Echmiadzin.








TEHLIRIAN, SOGHOMON (Kemakh 1896 – San Francisco 1960) Attended the Armenian Protestant school of Erzindjan, then the Yeznikian and Kedronakan schools. To Serbia in 1913 whither his father had emigrated to escape the Turks. Joined the Dashnak party. Fought in the volunteer army of Sepouh, 1914–17, enlisting without his parents' knowledge. Lost his mother and all relatives in the genocide. To Constantinople in 1919, seeking out Turks who had executed the Armenian genocide; also looked for Armenian collaborators. To the USA in 1920, on orders from the party; thence to Geneva and Berlin, where he assassinated Talaat on 15 March 1921. Acquitted by the Berlin court on 3 June. Settled in Belgium, where he remained until 1945; then emigrated to San Francisco, where he died.


TEKEYAN, VAHAN (Constantinople 1878 – Cairo 1945) Attended the Nersesian, Berberian and Kedronakan schools in Constantinople. Did not complete his studies. To Britain in 1896, thence to France, Germany and Egypt on business; began contributing to Armenian journals. Founded literary magazines Shirak (1905) and Nor Zhamanakner (1907). One of the founders of the Sahmanadrakan Ramkavar (constitutional democrat) party, Egypt, 1908. Returned to Constantinople after Ottoman constitutional revolution of 1908. To Echmiadzin in 1910, representing the Armenians of Egypt at the election of the Catholicos (Gevorg V, in 1911). Delegated by the Armenian National Assembly of Constantinople in 1914 to go to Jerusalem to inspect the patriarchate's accounts. Thence to Egypt. An attack by a political opponent in 1916 caused a permanent injury to an eye. Delegated by Egyptian Armenians to go to Cyprus in 1916 to liaise with the French, who were training the Légion d'Orient. To the Paris peace conference in 1919, as part of the delegation headed by Boghos Nubar Pasha. Delegated to Yerevan in September 1919 to negotiate co-operative agreement between the Armenian National Delegation and the delegation of the Republic of Armenia; the negotiations failed. In Constantinople in late 1920, editing Zhoghovurdi Dzayn ('People's Voice'). Founder member of the Ramkavar Azatakan (Democratic Liberal) party, Constantinople, 1922; forced to quit when the Kemalists took over. Successively to Bulgaria, Greece, Egypt and Syria, organising relief for orphans. Settled in Egypt as editor of the Ramkavar Azatakan daily Arev;


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briefly in Beirut in 1937 as editor of its equivalent, Zartonk. Appointed dean of the education faculty of the Melkonian Institute, Nicosia, in 1934. Published six volumes of poetry between 1901 and 1945. Died in Cairo. The Tekeyan Cultural Associations, established throughout the world by the Ramkavars, are so named in his memory.


TEMIRDJIAN, KAREN (Yerevan 1932–) higher education at the Karl Marx Polytechnical Institute, Yerevan. Joined the Communist party in 1955. In Leningrad on scientific work 1954–8. Then to Yerevan, holding senior position in an electro-technical factory; later as secretary of the same factory's party committee. Chief engineer and director after graduation from the party college in 1961. Second secretary of the Yerevan city committee of the Armenian Communist party, 1966–72. Appointed First Secretary of the Central Committee of the ACP on 28 November 1974, replacing Anton Kochinian.


TER-GABRIELIAN, SAHAK (Shushi 1886 – 1937) To Baku to work as a carpenter in 1900. Joined the Social Democrats in 1902; sided with the Bolsheviks after the 1904 split. Elected to the Baku Soviet in 1917; participated in the All-Russian Conference of Soviets in Petrograd in March 1917. Returning to Baku he was appointed commissar for oil, and president of the extraordinary commission suppressing counter-revolutionary activity. To Moscow after the fall of the Baku commune; worked for the food supply of the Red Army. To Armenia in 1920, working with the Soviet delegation negotiating with the Dashnak government. Representative of Soviet Armenia in Moscow in 1920. With Ioffe negotiated (fruitlessly) with the Dashnaks in Riga, July 1921. Transcaucasian SSR's representative to Russia, 1922–8. Chairman, Armenian council of people's commissars and deputy premier of the Transcaucasian SFSR 1928–35. To France and Germany in 1931 to set up Armenian repatriation scheme. Victim of Stalinist purges, later rehabilitated.










TER-MINASIAN, RUBEN (Akhalkalak 1882 – Paris 1950) Born to parents who had migrated from Erzerum. Higher education at Gevorgian seminary, Echmiadzin and Lazarian Institute, Moscow. Returned to the Caucasus in 1903; joined the Dashnak party; became a fedayi in Turkish Armenia. Active as a fighter until the proclamation of the Ottoman constitution in 1908. Did not


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trust the constitution, so he moved to Geneva to pursue scientific studies; these he completed in 1913. Returned to Turkish Armenia to be general director of all Armenian schools in Moush region. Prepared Armenians for self-defence after Turkey entered the first world war. Resisted the Ottoman troops for several months in 1915, breaking through a circle of them. To Transcaucasia in 1916; became a member of the National Council in 1917. An adviser to the Seim delegation in the Trebizond negotiations with the Turks in March 1918. Opposed declaring the independence of Armenia in May 1918. Against putting forward extravagant territorial demands at the peace conference. War minister and minister of the interior in the Bureau government, headed by Ohandjanian, May–November 1920, a post which gave him full scope to implement his militant, punitive and non-compromising policies: very severe in his suppression of the Tatars. In Zangezur after the Sovietisation of Armenia; thence to Persia and to Europe. Published his memoirs in seven volumes. Cautious, even suspicious, by nature. In Palestine during part of the second world war. Died in Paris, 29 November 1950.




TERIAN, VAHAN (V. Ter-Grigorian) (Kantsa, nr Akhalkalak, 1885 – Orenburg 1920) To Moscow to study at the Lazarian seminary until 1906. To Moscow university; studied history and languages. Joined the Bolshevik party. Wrote poetry, initially symbolist (Day-dreams of Anticipation, 1908, Verse, 1912); later optimistically revolutionary. Also translated from Oscar Wilde, Baudelaire and Shota Rustaveli. Further study at the oriental faculty, Petrograd university, 1913–17. In Moscow at the time of the October revolution; discussed the Armenian situation with Lenin in November 1917, requesting that Russian troops should remain in Turkish Armenia. Made initial draft of Bolshevik declaration 'About Turkish Armenia', adopted 11 January 1918. Appointed deputy commissar of the Armenian Affairs commissariat in January 1918. With Trotsky as part of the Bolshevik delegation at the Brest-Litovsk peace talks. Died from tuberculosis. Collected works published in 1923.




TORKOM, 'General' A one-time Dashnak khmbapet (fedayi leader), he declared the independence of Armenia in Erzerum in early 1918 in a desperate attempt to stabilise the situation after the Russian withdrawal from Turkish Armenia. In Smyrna 1921–2, helping the Greeks. During the Spanish civil war he created and led a small Armenian volunteer force, formed from Armenians living in Greece, which fought on Franco's side.


TUMANIAN, HOVHANNES (Dsegh, Lori 1869 – Moscow 1923) Attended the Nersesian Academy, Tiflis, but did not complete the course of studies.


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Thus, largely self-taught, he emerged as a poet of great directness, simplicity and lyricism, with a universal appeal. The unofficial poet laureate of Armenia. Also wrote stories and folk-tales. Most famous poems include Krounk ('The Crane'), 1896; Hayots Lerneroum ('In the Armenian Mountains'), 1902; the long poem Sasuntsi Davit ('David of Sasun'), 1902; Hayots Vishtë ('Armenian Grief'), 1903; Hogehangist ('Rest in Peace'), 1915, etc. Stories include Kach Nazar ('Nazar the Brave'), 1908. Tumanian was elected a member of the permanent bureau set up in Tiflis, November 1912, to seek a solution to the problem of Turkish Armenia. Sponsored several charitable societies in Tiflis in 1917–18, also the Union of Eastern peoples, which sought to unite the small nationalities of the Middle East. Advocated strongly pro-Russian stance throughout; profoundly distrusted Europe, seeing it as a manifestation of little more than greed and rapacity. Presided over meeting in Tiflis, June 1919, condemning the British for their activities in Karabagh. After the revolt of February 1921, he was sent by Orjonikidze to Yerevan on 20 March, to try to persuade the Dashnaks to surrender. They refused. Appointed president of HOK (Armenian Assistance Committee) in September 1921; briefly in Constantinople on relief work late 1921; returned a sick man. To Moscow for medical treatment in late 1922, where he died. Buried in Tiflis. His birthplace now bears his name.


TUTUNDJIAN, KHOSROV (Van 1894 –) Born to an Armenakan family. To Constantinople in 1907 for further education, at Armenian schools. To Lausanne university in 1913 to study law. Graduated in 1919 with doctorate in law and social sciences. To Yerevan, where he served in the ministries of the interior and justice. After the Bolshevik uprising of May 1920 he was appointed attorney-general for the Yerevan extraordinary court. Lectured in law, July 1920. During the Kemalist war he served as a volunteer in the division of Colonel Sepouh. Went into hiding in Yerevan after the Sovietisation of Armenia; helped organise the rebellion of 18 February 1921. Member of anti-Bolshevik extraordinary commission. Wounded in skirmishes with Bolsheviks. Fled to Persia when the Bolsheviks crushed the uprising. To Lebanon in 1924, on the invitation of the Dashnak Central Committee of Beirut. Published, with Arshak Hovhannisian, Punik ('Phoenix'), then Nor Punik. President of the community's civil council, 1934–41. Elected MP in Lebanese Parliament in 1937 as leader of Dashnak party's Lebanese committee. In this capacity he quarrelled with the party Bureau, led by Ruben Ter-Minasian and Vahan Navasardian. Suspended from the party in 1944, expelled altogether in 1953. Became editor of Azdarar daily (1953–5), which claimed to represent the true Dashnaks, criticising the Bureau. Published in 1959 Buroyakan Snankutiunë yev Irav Dashnaktsutian Ughin Arabakan Ashkharhi Verchin Depkerun Luisin Tak ('The Bankruptcy of the Bureau and the Path of True Dashnakism in the Light of Recent Events in the Arab World'). Although anti-Communist, he sees Russia as the necessary ally of Armenia. Continues to write in Nayiri,


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the Hunchak Ararat, and other Armenian periodicals. Visited Soviet Armenia in 1977 and 1978.


VARANDIAN, MIKAYEL (Varanda, Karabagh 1872 – 1934) Educated at the diocesan school of Shushi, then in Europe (especially in Geneva, and at various German universities). Joined the Dashnak party; settled in Geneva; became a member of the party's western bureau, and a member of the editorial board of the party newspaper, Droshak. Represented the socialist wing of the party; cultivated links with European socialist leaders, including Albert Thomas and Arthur Henderson. Represented Dashnaktsutiun at the Copenhagen conference of the Second International, 1910. Put forward the Armenian case in the conflict with Georgia at a meeting of the Second International, Paris, May 1919. During the period of the republic he was Armenian ambassador in Rome. A party theoretician, his chief work is Hai Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutian Patmutiunë ('History of the ARF' (vol. I, Paris, 1932, vol. II, Cairo, 1950)).


VARDAN (Sargis Mehrapian) (Karabagh – Yerevan 1943) Received some military training in youth. A close collaborator of Kristapor Mikayelian and Simon Zavarian, he early joined the Dashnak party. With Hovsep Arghutian led the Khanasor attack of 1897. In command of the Karabagh defence during the 1905 Armeno-Tatar conflict. Commander of the Araratian volunteer units formed in 1915; three troops reached Van on 19 May.




VARTKES (Hovhannes Serangilian) (Erzerum 1871 – nr Diyarbekir 1915) Educated in his native town. Took part in the demonstration there of June 1890; arrested, but pardoned. To Constantinople, where he became headmaster of the Armenian school at Gedik Pasha. Joined the Dashnak party in 1892. Took part in the Ottoman Bank incident (1896). To Marseilles, Geneva, Bulgaria and the Caucasus. Secretly to Van in 1899; betrayed in 1903, arrested, tried and sentenced to death; his sentence commuted to life imprisonment after the intervention of French friends. Set free after the Ottoman constitutional revolution of 1908; went to Constantinople. Elected to the Armenian national assembly, and to the Ottoman Parliament, as deputy for Erzerum. Despite parliamentary immunity, arrested 24 April 1915, and murdered by the Turkish authorities on the road to Diyarbekir.


VARUZHAN, DANIEL (D. Chibukkyarian) (Sivas province 1884 – Ayash 1915) Born in the vilayet of Sivas. Sent to Constantinople to study in 1896, and to Venice for further study at the Mkhitarist monastery at San Lazzaro in 1902. Thence he went to the university of Ghent. Returned to Constantinople after the declaration of the constitution of 1908; headmaster of Armenian


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schools of Sivas and Tokat 1909–12. Again in Constantinople as principal of the Armenian Catholic Lousavorchian school. A distinguished poet, his poems include The Shepherd, The Heart of the Nation and Pagan Songs. Arrested on 24 April 1915 and murdered in the course of the genocide. A monument has been erected to his memory in Ghent.




VAZGEN I, Catholicos (Bucarest 1907–) Baptismal name Garabed Baldjian Educated at the Armenian school and the Bucarest German lycée. Studied education and philosophy. To Leipzig university to take a doctorate in theology. Teacher and secretary of the Armenian school of Bucarest on his return, until 1942. Wrote books on The Armenians of Musa Dagh in Franz Werfel's Novel (1940), Khrimian Hayrik as Teacher (1944), Our Mass and About our Fatherland (both 1945). Ordained a celibate priest in Greece in 1943, with the name Vazgen. Elected deputy prelate and then prelate of the Armenians of Romania. Took part in the conclave that elected Catholicos Gevorg VI at Echmiadzin in 1945. Consecrated bishop in 1951; appointed prelate of Bulgaria as well as Romania. Elected a member of the supreme spiritual council of Echmiadzin in 1954. In the same year published a book, Hayreni Arevin Tak ('Beneath the Native Sun'). Elected by the conclave at Echmiadzin the 130th supreme patriarch and Catholicos of all Armenians in September 1955. Soon faced two crises: the election of a new Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia, February 1956, and the disputes within the congregation of St James, Jerusalem. The first entailed a split within the Church which persists (although with less bitterness) to this day. Since his becoming Catholicos the Armenian Church has joined the World Council of Churches. He took part in the conference of Eastern Churches, Addis Ababa, 1965; many other extensive travels. A number of improvements and renewals have taken place during his catholicosate at Echmiadzin.


VRAMIAN (Onnik Derdzakian) (Constantinople 1871 – Van 1915) Early education at the Surenian school, Constantinople; then to Echmiadzin to study at the Gevorgian seminary. Joined the Dashnak party. Returned to Constantinople, where he worked at the Russian post office, at the same time transporting bombs for Dashnak comrades. Forced to seek refuge at the Russian embassy at the time of the Ottoman Bank incident (1896). Escaped to Geneva via Bulgaria, where he helped edit Droshak. To the USA in 1899, where he became editor of Hairenik (Boston). To Transcaucasia in 1907; to Van and then Constantinople after the Ottoman constitution (1908); contributed to Azatamart. Elected deputy for Van in the second Ottoman parliamentary elections. A liaison with Young Turk leaders at the Erzerum congress of Dashnaktsutiun, July 1914. Imprisoned by Djevdet Bey, governor of Van, in April 1915, after being invited to see him, and murdered in jail.


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VRATSIAN, SIMON (Simavon Gruzian) (Great Sala, nr Nor Nakhichevan, 1882 – Beirut 1969) Attended local Russian and Armenian schools, then the prelacy school of Nor Nakhichevan. Joined the Dashnak party in 1898, mistakenly believing – by going through the wrong door – that he was joining the Hunchaks. At the Gevorgian seminary, Echmiadzin, 1900–6. Returned to Nor Nakhichevan as a Dashnak party worker. Took part in the 4th general congress of Dashnaktsutiun, Vienna, 1907, supporting the party's adoption of socialism. To St Petersburg in 1908 to study law and education. To Moscow, where a collection of literary pieces, Psak ('Crown') was published in 1910. To Constantinople in the same year, taking refuge from the anti-Dashnak measures of the tsarist authorities. On to Erzerum, where he edited Harach and taught at the Sanasarian academy. To the USA in 1911; edited Hairenik (Boston). To Erzerum for the 8th general congress of Dashnaktsutiun, July 1914; elected to the party's Bureau. Discussed policy with the Young Turk leaders. Briefly jailed as a Russian spy, August 1914. Escaped to Transcaucasia, where he became an organiser of the Armenian volunteer units. Often visited the front. After the disbandment of the units in late 1915, he served as a common soldier in Tiflis. Appointed editor of Horizon (Tiflis) after the March 1917 revolution. Attended the Moscow state conference, July 1917. A leading figure at the Armenian National Congress, September 1917, he was elected a member of the National Council. In southern Russia throughout the summer of 1918, gaining support of the volunteer army, obtaining as a result 3,000,000 cartridges, some machine-guns, and grain. Returning to Transcaucasia in October 1918, he was instrumental in gaining Populist support for the government coalition. Asked by H. Kachaznuni to accompany him on his tour of Europe and America in the spring of 1919, he was refused a visa by the British authorities in Tiflis, on the grounds of his being a radical socialist. Edited Harach (Yerevan) on his return. Elected to the Parliament; helped organise the 9th general congress of Dashnaktsutiun, Yerevan, autumn 1919. Re-elected to the party Bureau. Accepted ministry of labour, agriculture and state property in Kachaznuni's Cabinet. Held the same ministry in the Bureau government of H. Ohandjanian; additional responsibilities for information and propaganda. After the resignation of the Bureau government, and the failure of Kachaznuni to form a coalition, Vratsian accepted post of prime minister, 24 November 1920. Agreed on hand-over of power to Bolsheviks, 2 December; his government also agreed to the signing of the treaty of Alexandropol. In hiding a few weeks after Sovietisation. President of the Committee for the Salvation of the Fatherland after the 18 February 1921 rebellion. Appealed to Europe for assistance against the Bolsheviks; finally to Kemalist Turkey too. To Tabriz in July 1921. On to Tehran, Bombay, Alexandria and Constantinople. In Vienna, Geneva and Paris, 1923–5. Edited Droshak (Paris, monthly) 1927–33. Wrote Hayastani Hanrapetutiun (Paris, 1928, rev. edn. Beirut 1958). To South America in 1936; back to Paris, then to North America in 1939. In 1945 he presented a petition to the UN General Assembly


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at San Francisco demanding the retrocession of provinces held by Turkey to Armenia. In 1951, on the death of Levon Shant, he was appointed principal of the Djemaran (the Nshan Palandjian College), Beirut. Expressed a wish to visit Soviet Armenia at the end of his life, but circumstances prevented it. Died in May 1969.




YEKARIAN, ARMENAK (Van 1869 – Cairo 1926) Influenced in his youth by Khrimian, Portugalian and Avetisian. Failed in an attack on local Kurds after the murder of two Armenian youths; forced to flee to Transcaucasia (1887). Member of the Armenakan party (after 1908 Sahmanadrakan Ramkavar). Returning, he was jailed after a revolutionary scheme he had made was discovered in its early stages. Released through foreign pressure; crossed into Persia. Returned to Van in 1896. Military commander in the successful defence of Van, April–May 1915. Appointed commander of the Armenian forces when the Russians occupied Van in May 1915. To Cilicia on party business in 1920, then to Constantinople. To Alexandria in 1922.


YEPREM KHAN (Y. Davitian) (Yelizavetpol (Gantsak) 1871 – Hamadan 1912) Took part in the Gugunian expedition, September 1890; arrested by Russian authorities, sent to Sakhalin island, Siberia, in 1892. Escaped after three or four years; made his way to the Caucasus, and, since he was a fugitive, on to Persia. Settled in Tabriz. Joined the Dashnak party. Studied military tactics. After the party's decision to participate in the Persian constitutional movement, he became a leader of the constitutional forces; in 1908, after the shah's counter-revolution, his small army of Armenians, Georgians and Persians took the province of Gilan (including Qazvin) for the constitutionalists. Marched on Tehran in 1909 (at the same time as the Bakhtiaris were advancing on it from Isfahan), which he captured in June after bombing the shah's palace. Appointed chief of police, Tehran. When in 1911, the shah, banished to Russia, succeeded in mustering an army and marching on Persia, Yeprem and his army compelled him to flee. Killed by a stray bullet, Hamadan, May 1912. Succeeded by Keri.


YERZINKIAN, ARAMAYIS (Haghpat, Lori, 1878–?1937) Educated at the Nersesian academy, Tiflis, and Geneva university. Joined the Russian Social Democrats in 1901, siding with the Mensheviks after the split; played a part in spreading social democracy among Armenians. Assisted in publication of Proletariat (Tiflis). Participated in Armenian National Congress, October 1917. Minister of labour in Transcaucasian Cabinet, 26 April 1918. Political stance moved to the Bolsheviks in 1919–20. Minister of agriculture of the Armenian SSR in Miasnikian's Cabinet, 1921. Held the same post in the Transcaucasian SFSR 1930–1. Subsequently first deputy premier of the


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Armenian SSR's council of ministers, and president of the Yerevan city Soviet's executive committee. Played an important role in the rebuilding of Yerevan, building the first hydro-electric power stations, organising Armenian settlement in the Armenian SSR from abroad and setting up new towns. As an Old Bolshevik a prime victim of the Stalin/Beria purges; rehabilitated after Stalin's death.


ZAROBIAN, HAKOB (Yakov) (Artvin 1908–) Family moved to Russia during the first world war. Worked in Kharkov 1925–41, initially as a factory worker. Joined the Communist party in 1932. Party committee secretary of the main Kharkov factory in 1939. Committee secretary in Kharkov itself to October 1941. In Kubyansk, Lazovaya and Stalingrad during the second world war. To Omsk on party work in 1942. To Armenia in 1949 as head of the department of the Central Committee of the Communist party. Secretary of the Yerevan city committee of the Armenian Communist party in July 1950. Deputy minister of security, Armenian SSR, in April 1952. First deputy premier of Armenia, June 1953 – July 1958. First secretary of the Armenian Communist party 1958–66. Partly as a result of the huge demonstrations in Yerevan in April 1965, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Armenian genocide, he was dismissed in February 1966 from his post and returned to factory administration.


ZAVARIAN, SIMON (Igahat, Lori, 1866 – Constantinople 1913) Secondary education in Tiflis; then to Moscow, to the Petrovsk agricultural academy. Joined the Narodnaya Volya. Returned to Tiflis in 1889; with Mikayelian and Rostom founded Dashnaktsutiun in summer 1890. (With Mikayelian he represented the socialist wing of the party.) To Trebizond as a headmaster also in 1890; arrested and banished from the Ottoman empire. Briefly in Bessarabia. Returned to Tiflis; assisted in preparation of the party platform, 1892. Remained in Tiflis until 1902; executive officer of the party's eastern Bureau. To Geneva in 1902 as member of the editorial board of Droshak. To Cilicia and Lebanon in 1905; founded a union of students in Beirut. Then to Egypt. In Tiflis again 1905–8. To Moush after the Ottoman constitutional revolution, as inspector-general of all Armenian schools. To Constantinople in 1911 to teach in the Yessayan school; also wrote in the party paper, Azatamart. Died from a heart attack; his body was returned to Tiflis for burial.


ZAVEN, Patriarch of Constantinople (Mosul 1868 – Baghdad 1947) Baptismal name Mikayel Ter-Yeghiayan. Studied at the Miatsial Engerutiants (United Fellowship) school, Sghert (Siirt), 1881–4, then at the Armenian school, Baghdad. To the theological seminary, Armash. Ordained a celibate priest by Archbishop Ormanian in 1895, taking the name Zaven. Received the title of vardapet after writing a thesis on Catholicos John of Otsun. Preacher at


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S. Stepanos church, Khaskugh (Hasköy), Constantinople; prelate of the Armenians of Erzerum, 1898–1906; locum tenens of the prelacy of the Armenians of Van 1908–9; prelate of the Diyarbekir Armenians 1909–13. Consecrated bishop in 1910. Elected Armenian patriarch of Constantinople, September 1913. Protested in vain to the grand vizier and the Sublime Porte about the arrests of 24 April 1915 and the consequent genocide. The Young Turks exiled him to Baghdad in 1916, and abolished his see. Returned to Constantinople in 1918, but left again before the arrival of the Kemalists. To Bulgaria, Egypt and then Baghdad (in 1924). To Cyprus as an executor of the Melkonian brothers' will, by which AGBU set up the Melkonian Institute. Again in Baghdad, 1927, until his death. His body was transferred to Jerusalem for burial.


ZAVRIEV, Dr HAKOB Born to a rich family. Educated in a Russian environment; did not know Armenian. Graduated from the army medical academy, St Petersburg. Became chief administrator of the Baku working men's hospital. Joined the Dashnak party. Forsook his hospital work and took up arms when he heard of Nikol Duman's planned guerrilla attack on Sasun. (The expedition did not reach Sasun.) Sent as a doctor by the Russian government to establish a hospital at Moush; but the Turks objected, and he was expelled. Returned to Moush after the Ottoman constitution, as chief consultant at the hospital he had founded. The viceroy of the Caucasus consulted him over the formation of the Armenian volunteer units, 1914. Zavriev had discussions with Sazonov after the outbreak of the war, which led to assurances on an autonomous Armenia; departed to Paris to convey their substance to the French government. After the February revolution, his requests led the Provisional government to formulate its plan for Turkish Armenia, May 1917. He was at the same time appointed civilian assistant to the general commissar for Western Armenia. Tried to persuade the Provisional government to strengthen the Ottoman front after the Turks recaptured Moush. Chosen in November 1917 as a Dashnak representative in the Constituent Assembly. To Transcaucasia shortly after the October revolution. Returned to Petrograd in early 1918 to seek an agreement between Dashnaktsutiun and the Soviet government. Jailed after the murder of the 26 commissars, September 1918; released in March 1919. Allowed to leave Moscow in early 1920. Returned to work in a hospital; died in a typhoid epidemic.


ZHIRAIR (Mardiros Boyadjian) (Hadjin 1856 – 1894) Educated at Constantinople; returned to Hadjin to teach. Joined the Hunchak party; embarked on party organisation and revolutionary activity. In Erzindjan and Yozgat 1890–3 as a fedayi; hunted by gendarmes and zaptiyes. Besieged with his comrades at Chomak Dagh by 1,500 soldiers in March 1894; surrendered when his ammunition was exhausted. Sentenced to death and hanged on 24 March.


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ZOHRAB, KRIKOR (Constantinople 1860 – nr Diyarbekir 1915) Educated at the Shahnazarian school and the Galata Saray Lycée. Qualified as a lawyer. (Also held engineering qualifications, but did not practice.) Co-edited Masis 1892–3. Fled to Paris in 1895; also in Egypt. Returned to Constantinople after the proclamation of the constitution, 1908. Became a member of the Armenian National Assembly, and deputy for Constantinople in the Ottoman Parliament. Author of a large number of literary works: novels include A Vanished Generation, Mute Sorrows and Life as it is (the last has been translated into French). Published in Paris, under the pseudonym of Marcel Léart, La question arménienne à la lumière des documents (1913). Protested strongly to Talaat (with whom, he had believed, he had cultivated a close friendship) at the arrests of 24 April 1915 and subsequent killings; he himself was arrested on 3 June and murdered en route to Diyarbekir.





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